Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation Comunicación y Gerencia The Great Religious Upheval."— Presentation transcript:
The Protestant Reformation Comunicación y Gerencia The Great Religious Upheval
Causes of the Reformation Corruption in the Catholic Church: simony (sale of church offices), pluralism (official holding more than one office), absenteeism (official not participating in benefices), sale of indulgences, nepotism (favoring family members e.g. Medici’s), moral decline of the papacy, clerical ignorance
Causes of the Reformation Renaissance Humanism: de-emphasis on religion, secularism, individualism Declining prestige of the papacy Babylonian Captivity Great Schism Conciliar Movement
Causes of the Reformation Critics of the Church: emphasize a personal relationship with God as primary John Wyclif ( ), England, Lollards Jan Hus ( ), Czech Savonarola ( ) – theocracy in Florence Changing views of the common people. Secularism Poplular religion
Causes of the Reformation Christian Humanism: emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society Desiderius Erasmus Thomas More
Martin Luther ( ) Early Life –Born in Saxony –Wanted to be a lawyer, but had religious experience and decided to become Augustinian monk –Taught theology at the University of Wittenberg.
Justification by Faith Even though Luther had become a monk he questioned his ability to be saved. He read the work of the early church fathers (St. Augustine, and St. Paul) In Paul’s epistle to the Romans (1:17) he found “The just shall live by faith.” Luther felt that good works and sacraments were secondary to faith in Christ.
Johann Tetzel (1465?-1519) –Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences in Germany. –Came to Wittenburg in 1517 selling indulgences to pay for St. Peter’s in Rome –“As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
95 Theses Nailed by Luther to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October, 31 st 1517 Criticized sale of indulgences. This was inconsistent with his doctrine of justification by faith.
John Eck ( ) -German Catholic theologian -Opposed the Reformation & condemned Luther's theses -Debated Luther at Leipzig in 1520; Luther denied both the authority of the pope and the infallibility of a general council, - Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520, Eck delivered the Papal Bull.
Diet of Worms (1521) –Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with power to outlaw and sentence execution through stake-burning –Edict of Worms: Luther outlawed by the HRE under Emperor Charles V –Luther goes into hiding at Wartburg Castle under the protection of Frederick the Elector. Here he translates the bible into German.
Confessions of Augsburg –Presented at the Diet of Augsburg –1530: Written by Luther’s friend Philip Melanchthon Attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE; rejected by Catholic princes Became traditional statement of Lutheran beliefs: –Salvation through faith alone –Bible is the sole authority –Church consists of entire Christian community
Peace of Augsburg After the Diet of Augsburg, Lutheran princes for the Schmalkaldic League (1531) against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Charles V) Civil war erupted in Germany for the next 20 years. Charles V seeks to stop Protestantism and preserve hegemony of Catholicism
Peace of Augsburg Habsburg-Valois Wars: five wars between 1521 and 1555 France tried to keep Germany divided (although France was Catholic) political impact of Lutheranism in Germany: division lasts until late 19th century. In 1555, a compromise was established based on the formula cuius regio, eius religio (whose region, his religion.)
Peasants’ War ( ) (also known as Swabian Peasant uprising) Twelve Articles,1525: peasants demanded end of manorialism (feudalism) Inspired by Luther; Luther opposed to violence and peasant movement. As many as 100,000 peasants killed.
Impact on Women Lutheranism stressed marriage and the Christian home, marriage was a woman’s career. Women should be educated – schools for girls (Philip Melancthon) Nunnery taken away as a way for a women to advance in society.
Protestantism Spreads Other Sects
Ulrich Zwingli ( ) Humanist, catholic priest. Desired reform in the church 1519, broke with the church
Ulrich Zwingli ( ) Lead people of Zurich against the Catholic Church Believed in the supremacy of the Bible Colloquy of Marburg (1529): Zwingli splits with Luther over issue of Eucharist
John Calvin ( ) French Catholic priest. High educated. Agreed with Luther on most points (faith, Bible, sacraments.
John Calvin ( ) Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – major work of the Protestant Reformation Calvinism: predestination, the “elect,” Puritan or Protestant work ethic. Most militant and uncompromising of all Protestants Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva
Spread of Calvinism Far greater impact on future generations than Lutheranism Presbyterianism in Scotland, John Knox ( ); presbyters governed church Huguenots – French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France Dutch Reformed – United Provinces of the Netherlands. Puritans and Pilgrims (a separatist minority) in England; established colonies in America Countries where Calvinism did not spread: Ireland, Spain, Italy – heavily Catholic
Radicals Anabaptists, John of Leyden ( ): voluntary association of believers with no connection to any state Munster: became Anabaptist stronghold; tragedy at Munster—Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders Mennonites: founded by Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists (Amish)
Reformation in England John Wycliffe ( ): Lollards Henry VIII: 2nd of Tudor kings— considered a “New Monarch” initially strong ally of Pope: Defense of Seven Sacraments; “Defender of the Faith” Cardinal Thomas Wolsey: failed to get Henry’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon (originally wife of older brother Arthur) excommunication by Pope Paul III
Reformation in England Thomas Cranmer, 42 Articles of Religion: grants Henry his divorce Church of England (Anglican Church) Act of Supremacy (1534): King is now the head of the English Church Dissolution of the Monasteries – power play Execution of Thomas More for his opposition 1539, Statute of the Six Articles: Henry attempts to maintain certain Catholic sacraments
Successors to Henry VIII Edward VI (r ) (Son of Jane Seymour) England becomes more Protestant, weak ruler. Mary Tudor (r ) (Daughter of Catherine of Aragontries to reimpose Catholicism “Bloody Mary.” Married Philip II of Spain. Elizabeth I (r ) (Daughter of Anne Boleyn– the “Virgin Queen” effectively oversaw the development of Protestantism in England
Elizabeth I 1559, Parliament passes new Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity. 1563, Thirty-Nine Articles: defined creed of Anglican Church under Elizabeth I Puritans and Pilgrims (Separatists) sought to reform the church; Pilgrims left for Holland and then America
THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION aka Catholic Reformation
Move to Reform Pope Paul III (r ): Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism, appointed ethical clergy. Called Church Council. Julius III (r ) worldly pope. Papacy comes more committed to reform under Paul IV, (r ), Pius IV (r , and Pius V (r )
New Religious Orders Ursuline order of nuns (1544): Sought to combat heresy through Christian education Discalced Carmelite Nuns (1562) – St. Teresa of Avila ( ), poverty and simple life. Capuchins (1528) reform of Franciscans Oratorians (1575) St. Philip Neri Theatines (1523) improve education of clergy
New Religious Orders Jesuits (Society of Jesus) (1540): 3 goals—reform church through education, preach Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism Ignatius Loyola ( ): founder; organized in military fashion Spiritual Exercises: contained ideas used to train Jesuits
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions Spain: persecution of Mariscos (Christian Moors) & Marranos (Christian Jews) Succeeded in bringing southern German and eastern Europe back to Catholicism Sacred Congregation of the Holy Order, 1542, in papal states: Roman Inquisition Index of Prohibited Books: catalogue of forbidden reading Ended heresy in Papal States; rest of Italy not affected significantly
Council of Trent (3 sessions ) Established Catholic dogma four next 4 centuries Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions, and writings of Church fathers Salvation by both “good works’ and faith 7 sacraments valid; transubstantiation reaffirmed Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory reaffirmed approved Index of Forbidden Books
Council of Trent Church reforms: abuses in sale of indulgences curtailed, sale of church offices curtailed, ended nepotism Bishops given greater control over clergy, seminaries established to train priests.
Results of Reformation The unity of Western Christianity was shattered: Northern Europe (Scandinavia, England, much of Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland) adopted Protestantism. Religious enthusiasm was rekindled – similar enthusiasm not seen since far back into the Middle Ages. Abuses remedied: simony, pluralism, immoral or badly educated clergy were considerably remedied by the 17th century. Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over a century.