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Current Drug Trends Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC Garden Walk Recovery (570) 542 – 7946 www.gardenwalkrecovery.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Current Drug Trends Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC Garden Walk Recovery (570) 542 – 7946 www.gardenwalkrecovery.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current Drug Trends Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC Garden Walk Recovery (570) 542 – 7946

2 Bath salts Mephedrone 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Methylone Circa 2011

3 Bath salts 500 mg = $34.99 Ingested orally Snorted Injected Smoked

4 Bath salts: sold as o Toy cleaner o Plant food o Herbal incense o Research chemicals o Pond sand o Pond scum cleaner o Stain remover

5 Bath salts: marketed as TranquilityIvory Wave Red DoveCloud-9 Hurricane CharliePurple Wave Ocean BurstVanilla Sky ScarfaceWhite Lightning

6 Bath salts Synthetic designer drugs Slightly altered molecular structure of known starter or parent drug Mimics characteristics of other illegal drugs Sometimes called “fake cocaine” “Substituted cathinone”

7 Bath salts 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally related to Schedule l hallucinogens MDMA and MDEA 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally related to Schedule l stimulants cathinone and methcathinone

8 Psychological dangers

9 Physical dangers

10 Legislation Lackawanna County bans the drug on April 13, 2011 Luzerne County President Judge Thomas F. Burke Jr. did the same April 25, 2011 On June 15, member PA Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

11 Legislation DEA exercised its emergency scheduling authority to control three synthetic stimulants (Mephedrone, 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and Methylone) used to make products marketed as “bath salts” and “plant food.” October 21, 2011.

12 Legislation Synthetic Drug Control Act December, U.S. House of Representatives banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including spice and bath salts. Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.

13 Cloud Nine U.S. Sen. Bob Casey wants to close loopholes that allow makers of designer drugs to slightly alter their drugs and avoid federal and state bans. Cloud Nine: variant of insect repellant similar to bath salts (January, 2012)

14 Update Jewelry Cleaner AKA Cosmic Blast Synthetic cocaine Contains Naphyrone ( MRG-1 or Energy 1) Stimulant drug similar to mephedrone Increased body temperatures Not usually picked up on standard tests

15 Synthetic Cannabis K2 Spice Ocean Blue “herbal incense”

16 Synthetic Cannabis Created by Clemson University scientist John W. Huffman for research purposes in 1990s JWH-018 JWH-073 JWH-200 CP-47,497

17 Synthetic Cannabis “Not for human consumption” Aromatherapy “Mood enhancing” “Long lasting” “Legal high”

18 Physical symptoms Myocardial infarction Elevated blood pressure Seizures Increased agitation Profuse sweating Pale skin or vomiting

19 Psychological symptoms Extreme agitation Anxiety Delusions Hyper-excited Dysphoria Lost sense of reality Babbling incoherently Behavior akin to schizophrenia Fluctuating symptoms

20 Self-reported symptoms “long-lasting” high “seeing things” “hearing voices” “extreme paranoia”

21 Legislation November, DEA announced its "emergency scheduling authority" to temporarily control the K2 chemicals. March 1, Five chemicals most commonly found in "Spice" and "K2” classified as Schedule I controlled substances, a category reserved for unsafe, highly abused substances with no medical usage.

22 Legislation June 15, member Pennsylvania Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

23 Legislation Synthetic Drug Control Act December, U.S. House of Representatives banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including spice and bath salts. Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.

24 Update (April 21, 2012) New Jersey's Division of Consumer Affairs hasbanned all forms of synthetic drugs that mimicmarijuana's effects. Previously, five types ofsynthetic marijuana had been banned in the state,but New Jersey has banned all forms of the drug. Most states ban some form of the substance, asdoes the federal government. The all-inclusive banis the latest attempt by New Jersey to crack downon drug crimes.

25 Synthetic Cannabis Leaves of Blue Lotus or Bay Bean coated with chemicals

26 Signs of Use K2/Spice is typically smoked A strong clove smell Coffee grinder Pipes or screens

27 Prevalence of use One of every nine high school seniors reported using synthetic marijuana within the previous 12 months n=47,000 8 th, 10 th and 12 th graders First time synthetic cannabis question was asked Monitoring the Future. U of Michigan for the National Institute of Drug Abuse 01/1/2012

28 Physical dangers Three 16-year-old boys experienced heart attacks Healthy No signs of cardiovascular disease Had smoked K2 within the past few days UT Southwest Medical Center (11/9/2011)

29 Monitoring the Future Prevalence of use (2012) 11.4% 3.2% 2.9% 1.4%

30 Prevalence of use Increasing abuse in U.S. military 28 sailors assigned to USS Ronald Reagan dismissed (2011) 64 sailors accused of involvement in a Spice ring (2011) Air Force punished 497 airmen in 2011 compared to 380 in 2010

31 Prevalence of use Navy investigators compare Spice with angel dust (PCP) No two batches are the same Some experience a euphoric buzz – others have suffered delusions lasting up to a week

32 Salvia divinorum o Salvia o Diviner’s Sage o Sage of the Seers

33 Salvia divinorum Salvia divinorum is an extraordinary herb used in shamanism, divination, healing, meditation, and the exploration of consciousness. It should always be used in a thoughtful, intelligent manner, and only by responsible adults that are of sound mind and clear intent.

34 Salvia divinorum "The purpose of these sacraments is to purify, and to open the road. When it opens, it's as clear as the blue sky, and the stars at night are as bright as suns.” Aurelia Aurora Catarino Mazatec shaman

35 Salvia divinorum Used for centuries in healing ceremonies by Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca [Pronounced wah-haa-ca]

36 Salvia divinorum December, 2010 Miley Cyrus 18 th birthday Internet - TMZ & YouTube sensation

37 Salvinorin A Psychoactive constituent Potent k-opioid receptor agonist. Salvia divinorum is generally understood to be of low toxicity and low addictive potential.

38 Salvinorin A Roth discovered that Salvinorin A targeted a single brain receptor – the kappa opioid receptor – making salvia the strongest hallucinogen “gram for gram” found in nature (2002).

39 Salvinorin A Could possibly be used to treat brain disorders including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s.

40 Medical Applications ?  Heroin  Marijuana  LSD  Psilocybin  Mescaline

41 Salvinorin A A structurally novel κ-opioid receptor agonist. Hallucinogenic More specifically deliriant and dissociative.

42 Dissociatives A class of hallucinogen which reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. Are unique Produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.

43 Salvinorin A Effects are sought after, even though the experience is often considered dysphoric by the user. While salvinorin A is considered a hallucinogen, it is not a psychedelic. Effects are qualitatively different than those produced by psychedelic hallucinogens such as LSD or mescaline.

44 Salvia divinorum Illegal in some states Short-acting psychedelic Strong dissociative effects Chewed, smoked or consumed as a tincture

45 Salvia divinorum Increased feeling of insight Improved mood Sense of calmness Increased sense of connection with nature

46 Salvia divinorum Used as treatment for anemia, headache, rheumatism, depression, colds, sore throat, constipation, diarrhea *Potential as an analgesic *Therapeutic tool for treating drug addictions

47 Salvia divinorum Not generally known to be toxic or addictive NO fatal overdose reported

48 Salvia divinorum Carcinogens associated with smoking Possible negative interventions with other drugs or medications Possible dysphoria

49 Legislation o In U.S. not regulated under the DEA Controlled Substances Act o Illegal in DE, OH, NJ, NY, PA. o On June 15, member PA Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

50 Legislation o Joe Baca (D-California) proposed HR 5607 for amendment of the Controlled Substances Act to place Salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum in federal Schedule I (2002).

51 Legislation o Daniel Siebert sent letter to Congress arguing against proposed legislation. o Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCLE) sends key members of US Congress report on Salvia divinorum and its active principle. o Also, letters from array of scientists concerned that scheduling Salvia would negatively impact important research. o HR 5607 did not pass.

52 Afterthought o Certain experiences on drugs may be so unfriendly and uncomforting that the user may never want to try the substance again. This is especially true of the deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed) and powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum)


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