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Methamphetamine and the Work Place North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General.

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Presentation on theme: "Methamphetamine and the Work Place North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methamphetamine and the Work Place North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General

2 Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab

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9 Sweet Briar Lake Recreation Area

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24 History of Methamphetamine 1887: Amphetamine was first synthesized by German chemist L. Edeleano. Amphetamine is used in the medical treatment of Narcolepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Obesity control, and for increased energy.

25 History of Methamphetamine 1919: Methamphetamine was first synthesized by Japanese chemist A. Ogata. 1965: The United States Congress make Methamphetamine and Amphetamine a Schedule II drug, making it illegal to possess unless a person has an prescription.

26 History of Methamphetamine 1960’s: Outlaw Biker Groups control the illegal production of Methamphetamine, utilizing the P2P method of production and marketed it as a small white “Cross-Top” pill. 1960’s: Saw the first testing of the affects of Methamphetamine abuse on the human brain and body.

27 History of Methamphetamine 1980’s: There was a trend to move away from the use of the pill form, and market in a powder form. 1980’s: Methamphetamine begins to surpass Cocaine as the stimulant of choice. 1980’s: There is a shift from the P2P method to the Ephedrine-Reduction method of production.

28 History of Methamphetamine 1980’s: Control of the illegal production and distribution of Methamphetamine begins to shift from the Outlaw Biker Groups to Mexican Nationals. The Mexican Nationals are able to produce larger quantities of higher quality Methamphetamine, but the Outlaw Biker Groups still control the distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.

29 History of Methamphetamine 1990’s-present: Mexican Nationals have taken over the production and distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States. The illegal production and usage of Methamphetamine, in the Midwest has increased drastically, in the past 10 years.

30 Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab: 1993: : : : : 450 North Dakota Statistics

31 Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab: 1998: : : : :767 (To Date) North Dakota Statistics

32 In 2000, for the first time the North Dakota State Crime Lab analyzed more Methamphetamine samples then Marijuana samples : First investigation and seizure of an Amphetamine lab in North Dakota. 1985: First investigation and seizure of a Methamphetamine lab in North Dakota.

33 North Dakota Statistics Methamphetamine Labs Seized: 1995: : : : :17

34 North Dakota Statistics North Dakota Statistics: Methamphetamine Labs Seized: 2000: : : 135 (To Date) In 2001, approximately 24% of the cases that the NDBCI investigated were Methamphetamine related.

35 North Dakota Statistics

36 Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 84 (94%) were the Lithium-Reduction (Nazi) Method. Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 52 (58%) were located in the urban areas, while 37 (42 %) were found in the rural area.

37 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Methods of Ingestion/Onset: 1) Orally:20-30 minutes 2) Inhalation: 1-5 minutes 3) Injection: Intravenously: 5-7 seconds Intramuscularly: 1-5 minutes Subcutaneous: 1-5 minutes 4) Smoking: 4-6 seconds The effects of Methamphetamine HCL will last approximately 2-3 hours, and maybe detected in urine hours after use.

38 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Methamphetamine is extremely powerful and addictive central nervous system stimulant, that also affects the cardiovascular system. Chronic Methamphetamine abuse permanently damages the pleasure center of the brain, so that the only way to experience pleasure would be the continued abuse.

39 Methamphetamine Pharmacology

40 Central Nervous System Effects: Euphoria Increased Alertness Increased Energy Shakes or Tremors Twitching Dilated Pupils Convulsions Seizures

41 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Cardiovascular Systems Effects: Increased Pulse Increased Blood Pressure Increased Heart Rate Increased Body Temperature Increased Respiration Cardiac Arrhythmia Stroke Heart Attack

42 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Other Symptoms/Effects: Insomnia Aggressive/Violent Behavior Irritability Severe Mood Swings Nervous/Anxious Behavior Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis

43 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Other Symptoms/Effects: Other Psychological Problems Auditory/Visual Hallucinations Clinical Depression False Sense of Power/Confidence Suppressed Appetite/Weight Loss Fainting

44 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Other Symptoms/Effects: Impotence Body Odor/Increased Sweating Dry Mouth Dry/Itchy Skin Acne/Sores Pale Skin

45 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Other Symptoms/Effects: Retraction/Bleeding of Gum Tissue Teeth Loss Increased Urine Output Numbness Tingling Sensations Constant “Electric Buzz” in Ears

46 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Long Term Effects: Fatal Kidney/Lung Damage Possible Brain Damage Clinical Depression Recurring Hallucinations Violent/Aggressive Behavior Weight Loss/Weight Gain

47 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Long Term Effects: Insomnia Permanent Psychological Problems Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis Lowered Resistance To Illness Liver Damage Stroke

48 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Long Term Effects: Hepatitis A, B, & C HIV/AIDS (Needle Usage) Permanent Damage to the Pleasure Center Of The Brain Disorganized Lifestyle/Social Life Death

49 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Overdose Symptoms: Seizures Convulsions Stroke Heart Attack Coma Death

50 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Withdrawal Symptoms: Severe Cravings Insomnia/Exhaustion Intense Restlessness Severe Depression Mental Confusion Extreme Hunger

51 Methamphetamine Pharmacology Withdrawal Symptoms: Psychotic Reactions Anxiety Reactions

52 Methamphetamine Pharmacology

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54 Methamphetamine Manufacturing

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56 There is approximately 48 different methods to illegally manufacture Methamphetamine. The “Super Labs” in California and Arizona utilize the Ephedrine-Reduction or Red Phosphorous Method, that produce Lbs per “Cook”. Approximately 95% of the labs seized in North Dakota utilize the Lithium- Reduction (“Nazi”) Method.

57 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method is the fastest and easiest way to manufacture Methamphetamine. Approximately 70-80% of the Ephedrine used is converted into Methamphetamine utilizing the Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method, giving the best yield of any method.

58 Methamphetamine Manufacturing For each pound of finished Methamphetamine that is produced, the production process generates five (5)-six (6) pounds of waste by- product. This by-product must be handled as toxic waste and be disposed of according to EPA and OSHA standards.

59 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Because of these EPA and OSHA guidelines, it becomes extremely costly to clean up clandestine lab sites. Because each clandestine lab site is considered hazardous, it must be handled by and disposed of by certified hazardous material disposal companies.

60 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine Lithium Batteries Anhydrous Ammonia Rock Salt Sulfuric Acid Muriatic Acid

61 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: Coleman (Camp Stove) Fuel Acetone Ether Toluene Naptha Fuel Starting Fluid

62 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: “Heet” Kerosene Lacquer/Paint Thinner Mineral Spirits Iodine Red Phosphorous

63 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: Aluminum Foil Red Devil Lye Drano Freon Pie Plates/Pyrex Cookware Mason Jars

64 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: Plastic/Vinyl Tubing Funnels Coffee Filters Sport Bottles Spoons Pressure Cooker

65 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine: Hot Plate Ice Tea Jars Gasoline Cans Propane Tanks Coolers Duct Tape Grinders

66 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine: Large Retail Chains Hardware Stores Pharmacies Convenience Stores Truck Stops Automotive Stores

67 Methamphetamine Manufacturing Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine: Chemical Supply Companies Farm and Ranch Stores Mail Order Companies Internet Companies

68 Methamphetamine Manufacturing

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76 Methamphetamine User

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82 Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse: Before

83 Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse: After

84 Methamphetamine in the Work Place Special Agent In Charge Michael J. Ness North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation


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