1 Monitoring challenges Til bruker: Skriv inn teksten du vil ha på ditt første lysbilde. Når du skal lage ett nytt lysbilde går du i menyen å velger: sett inn - nytt lysbilde - velg oppsett som passer til det du skal ha inn på den nye sida. Blå strek og logo ligger ikke i malsiden. Du har mulighet til å velge om du vil ha disse effektene med på alle siden ved å gå til side 1 og kopiere blå sterk /logo fra denne side Lukk dette vindu ved å gå i vis - merknader 19.10.00 Ksi Til bruker: Skriv inn teksten du vil ha på ditt første lysbilde. Når du skal lage ett nytt lysbilde går du i menyen å velger: sett inn - nytt lysbilde - velg oppsett som passer til det du skal ha inn på den nye sida. Blå strek og logo ligger ikke i malsiden. Du har mulighet til å velge om du vil ha disse effektene med på alle siden ved å gå til side 1 og kopiere blå sterk /logo fra denne side Lukk dette vindu ved å gå i vis - merknader 19.10.00 Ksi landscape monitoring Gary Fry Norwegian Institute for Nature and Cultural Heritage Research the need integration indicators
2 Keynote thoughts questions not answers larger scale issues of monitoring not research reports discuss which rural resources to monitor accept that priorities have been and always will be changing discuss what can be monitored and not (today) question the appropriate objectives for landscape monitoring This presentation will provide:
3 Management units Ownership or administrative boundaries are often not suited to landscape ecological planning can landscape character assessments be a suitable way forward if so what are the basic steps? national - regional - landscape
5 Landscape: a hierarchical system regional level regional level of significance to areal planning (100km 2 ) landscape level landscape level of interest to local plans, (10km 2 ) site level site level planning within individual ownerships (1km 2 )
7 Some emerging issues what are trends in priorities for countryside issues? what can opinion polls and market surveys show?
8 biodiversity monitoring problems communicating the deliverables from monitoring why it matters - doom & gloom since the 1960s education - schools do a bad job by providing negative associations instead of solution oriented biodiversity has never been well-understood by the public, losses have not affected people directly biodiversity has been taken care of... has not always integrated well with other interests, as it is not always possible to compromise (win-win is rare)
9 Devolution of power local involvement stewardship participatory planning but increases damage to rural resources NIMBY looking at the evidence wolves & sheep conifer forests snow scooters / wilderness
10 why integrate rural interests? the countryside is currently a mess of interests often providing conflicting advice & grant aid both academic institutions and policy have supported or made worse this trend policy is now in favour of integrated approaches to landscape: approaches which demand new > from research environments international agreements on biodiversity and landscape conservation increase this demand and for national reporting on landscape quality
11 Loss of cultural heritage % 100 0 25 50 75 0255075100 % cultural heritage sites remaining in a region % potential for historical interpretation
12 what integration will NOT achieve it will NOT remove all conflict it will NOT prevent power struggles it will NOT tell us what we SHOULD do it will NOT make monitoring any easier integrated monitoring methods coupling data from environmental & social sciences hierarchies of scale demand for quantitative indicators across interests qualitative vs quantitative approaches
13 The role of indicators to simplify to communicate to quantify to summarise needed to compare landscapes or the same landscape over time needed for environmental reporting needed for detecting problems before they are acute
14 size shape pattern edge matrix linkages contrast Indices of patch characteristics
15 Monitoring challenges deciding the classification - retain primary data
16 Monitoring challenges the grassy bits - big errors + need to capture quality
18 Indicator frustrations monitoring has to accept operational limitations BE HONEST what we DO know (the +/- aspects of the tools we use) what we DON’T know (no data or ability to interpret) what we COULD know (if given time and more resources) what we SHOULD know (to answer the questions asked) clear objectives for monitoring (verifiable objectives, e.g ability to detect 1% change in cover of deciduous woodland over 5 years) meta-studies of monitoring projects (what works)
19 Monitoring success Standard recording schemes and methods. Training is important. Scale of recording appropriate to the process/animal being monitored Central monitoring co-ordinator / organisation to organise and oversee monitoring programme and to control quality and manage data. Monitoring records must be stored safely and be accessible to all stakeholders. Change can only be verified if sites are geo-referenced and can be relocated. Monitoring means repeated records, ensure monitoring work continues beyond the baseline survey phase. Use monitoring results in policy & management, many past schemes have never been used, this reduces commitment and motivation. Clear objectives for monitoring are necessary - what information will be provided and the detail necessary. Accept it will not be possible to monitor everything. Indicators can be a useful tool. Linking to processes of interest essential. Monitoring cannot tell us what targets to aim for when setting standards, these are value judgements, what it can do is inform whether we are achieving these targets.