What does Administration involve? Communicating : telephone, , faxes etc Keeping Records : diaries, reports, logbooks Providing and storing information : manual and electronic systems Presenting information : WP, SS, DB, DTP and other software eg accounting, project management Interpersonal skills : reception, internal and external customers Systems and Procedures : including mail, reprographics, arranging meetings and making travel arrangements
The Senior Administrator Duties include planning, organising and supervising junior members of staff. They should be able to: Delegate Make Decisions Develop systems and procedures Encourage and support other staff Monitor and Evaluate systems Other duties include : recruitment and selection of staff; training and appraisal; ensuring that legislation is complied with and the planning and organisation of meetings
Skills and Abilities QUICK to learn ATTENTION to detail ORGANISATIONAL skills MOTIVATED and a TEAM PLAYER CUSTOMER CARE FLEXIBLE ICT skills PROBLEM SOLVING skills TACT and INITIATIVE COMMUNICATION and ENTHUSIASM
The Recruitment Process Job Evaluation/Analysis – there may not need to be a vacancy, roles may be reassigned. Job Description and Person Specification Job Advertisement – the basic information to attract potential candidates
The Job Description Shows the job title, duties and responsibilities, remuneration etc. Helps applicants complete their application form. Job Descriptions should be updated regularly to reflect changes in the job and what the post- holder is expected to do. Often a statement “and any other duties as required by line manager and relevant to the position”.
The Person Specification Shows essential and desirable skills and qualities. The interviewer will use this document during interviews to compare one candidate with another.
Activity: Job Description and Person Specification Use your research skills to find some examples of Administration jobs. Then create your own Job Description and Person Specification for your own company. Make use of tables within word processing.
Quick Quiz Questions 1
Aims, Objectives and Targets
Achieving the Vision… Staff need to share management vision. The Senior Administrative Assistant will set both personal and departmental targets to meet these goals. Departmental targets need teamwork and individuals to meet their own personal targets.
Importance of Target Setting Employees and departments know what is expected of them Is the organisation achieving success ? Any deviations from target can be corrected, if monitored regularly Increased productivity Increase in motivation – trying to reach the target set
The Mission Statement A mission statement is a short statement of the aims of an organisation, and how it will achieve these aims. It contains the values of the organisation eg “eco-friendly” or “fair-trade” policies. This may improve the organisation’s image. It will assist decision-making. It provides "the framework or context within which the organisation’s strategies are formulated.” It has the power to attract custom and helps employees see their purpose in the business.
Recording Targets… Gantt Chart To-Do List Priorities List Action Plan Electronic Diary (e-Diary) Personal Development Plan (PDP) Write down a short definition of each
Recording Targets… Gantt Chart – shows comparisons between work planned and work accomplished. Key target dates (milestones) will be marked on the chart. To-Do List – shows a list of tasks to be completed. Priorities List – tasks put in order of importance. Action Plan – identifies what should be done by whom, with expected completion dates Electronic Diary (e-Diary) – different views are available to show daily/weekly/months Personal Development Plan (PDP)
Recording Targets… Personal Development Plan (PDP): A document used to record formally areas of strength and areas for development. Allow an employee to: Focus on specific aspects of their job Allows skills to be shared with others Identify training needs Expand job role in the organisation
SMART Targets Specific – state exactly what has to be done Measurable – state how much/what size, so you know how to achieve them Agreed – with Line Manager as part of PDP Realistic – achievable but still a challenge Timed – key dates identified when the work will be completed
Examples of SMART Targets By the end of next month a database of 100 suitable UK hotels for company travel is to be compiled Within the next two months the manual filing system detailing employee records is to be transferred to a database. By 30 September, the administrative assistant is to attend a training course on our new CRM system
Monitoring Performance Line manager checks regularly eg meetings and staff updates Gantt chart Audits or system checks to review current procedures Mentoring systems (help and advice) Buddy system (help and advice) Sample quality checks (eg call centres)
Changing Priorities Unexpected circumstances: Member of staff absent Computer network ‘crashes’ Changed deadline for a piece of work Priorities lists should list high, medium and low priority items to assist with rescheduling when required
Time and Task Management
What is Time Management? Time management is not about how much time you spend, but how it is spent.
Time Stealers – Reducing Effectiveness Interruptions eg telephone or visitors Meetings – set time limits Taking on too much – delegate Acting without complete information Crisis Management – not having plans Unclear or Poor Communication Inability to say “NO” Desk Stress – clutter Procrastination
Effects of Poor Time Management Staff become stressed and absence levels increase Poor productivity – work is not produced as efficiently or to the right quality Morale will decrease – low job satisfaction Increase in accidents or unnecessary incidents Increased costs to management
Managing Time Effectively Record appointments in desk/e-Diary Access only at certain times in the day Good File Management Delegate tasks to others “Do Not Disturb” Time Group Jobs – avoid unnecessary journeys At end of each day – tidy desk and prepare a priorities list Allocate tasks as: must be done/needs action/delegate
Delegation Develops staff abilities Improves motivation Saves manager time, to carry out important tasks But this is difficult Can you do the job better yourself? High standards? Afraid of losing control?
Benefits of Good Time Management Improved morale and job satisfaction Increased productivity and better quality of work Lower stress levels and less staff absence Better relations with both internal and external clients Elimination of procrastination and indecision Improved promotion prospects
Internet Activity Access Choose Time Management Work through the activities and take some short notes on Time Management There are some example documents which you can download.
Internet Activity Some useful information can be accessed here on the businessballs.com website businessballs.com
Quick Quiz Questions 2
What is a Team? “No man is an island” A team can be defined as a group who have been specifically formed for a particular purpose. They have: A shared purpose or goals A sense of belonging (having an identity) A dependence/reliance on each other
Effective Teams Team Composition – personality, interests, age and backgrounds Team Development – once values are agreed the group pulls together Nature of the Task – clarity, belief in task, resources allocated Team Maintenance/Environment – includes virtual teams and team building opportunities Leadership – having an effective leader
Team Roles (Belbin) The Specialist – rare knowledge and skills The Ideas Person – creative, imaginative, solves problems The Motivator – the drive and courage to overcome obstacles The Organiser – clarifies goals and makes decisions, delegates well The Implementer – turns ideas into actions The Checker – monitors and evaluates The Finisher – delivers on time The Go-Getter – develops contacts and explores opportunities The Team Player – listens to others and averts conflict
Stages in Team Development Forming – the team members are introduced Storming – members compete for roles; disputes and power struggles Norming – members start working together and conflicts are resolved Performing – the team is settled and working together
Internet Research Visit to find out some more about effective teams.www.belbin.com
Team Conflict Conflicting goals – two members of the team want to go in different directions Personal disputes – there are always people who will not get on Lack of resources – not being able to put all ideas into action (money/staff/equipment) Changing expectations – moving deadlines or targets Loyalty issues – affected by the relationships between members of the team
Benefits of Team Working Individual: Sense of belonging and value Share knowledge and skills (therefore promotion prospects) Increased motivation and morale More likely to take risks (as they are shared) Organisation: Multi-skilled and flexible workforce Employees take on more responsibilities (less supervision) Specialisation and division of labour into different project areas Risks undertaken successfully are of huge benefit Increased competitiveness
Types of Team Leaders
A Leadership Story: A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.
A Leadership Story: And shouts down to the assembled group below… “Wrong Way” (Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster). “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
Leadership A leader is someone who influences others towards the achievement of goals. A good leader will motivate people to willingly work towards their goals.
Leadership A leader will: Set a clear vision or goals for the team Meet the needs of the team (information, communication etc) Meet the needs of individuals (support, training etc) Meet the needs of the task (resources, team skills etc) Liaise between the team, management and other work areas.
Different Styles of Leadership Autocratic – This type of leader takes decisions without consultation and has very little regard for the thoughts and opinions of other colleagues or the workforce; usually found in traditional organisations.
Different Styles of Leadership Laissez-Faire – This is the “let it be” leader who prefers the workforce to take their own decisions. This type of leadership can be useful in business where creative ideas are important but it relies heavily on good team work.
Different Styles of Leadership Democratic – This type of leader is much more likely to be consultative and to encourage participative decision making.
John Adair’s Theory of Leadership This model encourages a flexible approach to leadership, with the idea that there is no ‘right’ style of leadership. The style that best fits the situation should be adopted at any one time. Task Needs: Objective Setting Planning Allocating Responsibilities Performance Standards Task Needs: Objective Setting Planning Allocating Responsibilities Performance Standards Group Needs: Team building Communication Motivation Discipline Group Needs: Team building Communication Motivation Discipline Individual Needs: Coaching Counselling Motivation Development Individual Needs: Coaching Counselling Motivation Development
Internet Task There are many theories about ‘good leadership’. Use the internet to find out about McGregor and his ‘X’ and ‘Y’ Theories. Contrast these with Tannenbaum and Schmidt, Fiedler and Likert also had interesting ideas. Take some notes on what these theorists thoughts. What is charisma? Look this up. Write down the names of some leaders you think have charisma.