Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Curriculum: A Paralysing Policy? Consider Concept of Curriculum Context in Northern Ireland Pre-Curriculum Curriculum Three Periods – Curriculum Imposed.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Curriculum: A Paralysing Policy? Consider Concept of Curriculum Context in Northern Ireland Pre-Curriculum Curriculum Three Periods – Curriculum Imposed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum: A Paralysing Policy? Consider Concept of Curriculum Context in Northern Ireland Pre-Curriculum Curriculum Three Periods – Curriculum Imposed ( ) – Curriculum Integrated ( ) – Curriculum Decline ( ) Conclusions What Next?

2 Curriculum in Youth Work Many meanings and Different Definitions total curriculum 'totality of experiences within the provision Control, culture, emphasis on knowledge Product- instrumental/ passive, hierarchical & linear Process- Development/ Active/ Autonomous/ Experience/ Competence/ Overt Values

3

4 The Northern Ireland Context The Troubles – the most sustained violent conflict over National Identity in Europe (Acheson 2006:13)Over 3700 deaths (equivalent to 11,500 fatalities in Finland 115,000 in UK, 600,000 in USA (Hargie 2003)) – are considered the most violent period and accounts for over 1/2 deaths Political Upheaval – Suspension of the regional parliament (Stormount) – Public sector response to street violence and civil unrest

5 Impact of Troubles on Local Government 'Direct Rule' Ministers in Westminster Highly centralized system of public administration Local government emasculated Key services transferred to Quangos Structure was intended to be a-political Youth work clearly linked to education Youth Work separated from Community Development

6 Pre-Curriculum Youth Work 1972 & 1973 Youth Work Provision Statutory Duty £125,000 in 1972, £3.5 Million in 1975/76£8 Million by Purpose Built Centres, full- time posts, professional training, Emphasis on sport and recreation targeted at the "assumed needs of young men." (Harland & Morgan 2003) 'Hidden Curriculum' = diversionary/ social control/ Prevent Civil Unrest

7 1980’s Post Welfarism UK Conservative Government (1979) "Political & social climate changed" (Davis) Monetarist policies to reduce inflation and expenditure Unemployment in UK was 12.5%, in North England 16% in Northern Ireland 20%, in some areas 30% Levels remained high throughout the 1980's Large focus on Community Based Employment Hidden Curriculum = Diversionary/ Social Control/ Economic

8 Curriculum Imposition Concept of a National or 'Core' curriculum in schools could be applied to youth work (Similar in other parts of UK) Imposed by a 'Direct Rule' minister from England in 1987 Policy Define objectives of youth services – To promote greater understanding/ Cross community involvement – Service to others – Social education – Partnership between YP/ Adults/ Community – Opportunity to express views and participate – Entrepreneurship

9 ELB (NI) Order 1986 The Education and Library Board Youth Services operates under Article 33 of the Education and Library Board (N.I.) Order Each Board shall secure the provision for its area of adequate facilities for recreational, social, physical, cultural and youth service activities and for services ancillary to education and for that purpose

10 1987 Programme Core Requirements 1.Equal Participation 2.Cross Community 3.Counselling provision 4.Voluntary community service 5.Opportunities to test values and beliefs 6.Develop political awareness 7.Involvement in creative and aesthetic activities 8.Provision of sport 9.Youth enterprise schemes

11 Response from the Youth Sector Initial reaction was 'confusion & panic‘ Two main responses emerged 1.Compliance – bureaucratic accountability – curriculum agreements – lacked proportionality – 'Content' interpretation of curriculum – Dissonance: dilemma of working 'with' objectives, not working 'to' objectives

12 Response from the Youth Sector 2.Commitment – Significant work on curriculum guidance Community Relations Political Education Participation Gender Equality “Practice, Policy, and training were coming together at one time” “Once in a life-time, the longed for tidal wave, of justice can rise up, and hope and history rhyme” (Heaney)

13 Structure of Youth Work (NI)

14 The Children (NI) Order 1995 Major Social Policy update Key Principles – Paramouncy – Parental Responsibility – Partnership – Prevention – Protection Vetting Base line in Child Protection

15 Approaching the New Millennium 1993 Hume / Adams Talks 1993 Downing Street Declaration 1994 IRA Cease Fire 1998 Belfast Agreement

16 Curriculum Integration Youth Work: A Model for Effective Practice Adopted, published and launched by the Department of Education in October 1997 followed a review period Central Theme Personal and Social Development of Young People Three Core Principles Commitment to preparing young people for participation The promotion of acceptance and understanding of others The development of appropriate values and beliefs

17 A Model for Effective Practice clarified and simplified language focused on an articulation of youth work purpose, rather than youth services attempted to remove prescription Orientated the curriculum towards 'process’ ''such statements enabled curriculum debate to the muted and in fact passed over in Northern Ireland” (Harland et al 2005)

18 Youth Work: A Model for Effective Practice (1997) Adopted, published and launched by the Department of Education in October 1997 after substantial review period Central Theme – Personal and Social Development of Young People Three Core Principles Commitment to preparing young people for participation The promotion of acceptance and understanding of others The development of appropriate values and beliefs

19 Youth Work: A Model for Effective Practice (1997) Programme Areas: 1.Health Education 2.Information, Guidance and counselling 3.Testing Values and Beliefs 4.Creative Arts 5.Outdoor Education 6.Sport and Recreation 7.Widening Horizons 8.Community Involvement 9.Community Relations 10.Political Awareness and Active Citizenship 11.Development Education 12.Environmental Awareness 13.Information Technology

20 Significance of 1997 Curriculum Clarified and simplified language Focused on an articulation of youth work purpose, rather than youth services Attempted to remove prescription Orientated the curriculum towards 'process’ ''such statements enabled curriculum debate to the muted and in fact passed over in Northern Ireland” (Harland et al 2005)

21 Acceptance of 1997 Curriculum Curriculum Integration was protracted Youth Service Policy Review (1999)7Substantial Peace Funding from EU The focus of practice shifted with funding 2002 Curriculum added to initial training

22 Developing Devolution Belfast Agreement Direct 1999 Rule ended in December NI Assembly unstable due unresolved issues Assembly Established 2007 Review of Public Administration 2002 Proposed Education Skills Authority Review of Northern Ireland schools curriculum initiated In 2002 consultation on 'revision' of youth work curriculum Period of 'care & maintenance' (Knox 2008)

23 Curriculum 2003 Impact Creation of Curriculum Development Unit – political attempt to shift influence Youth Work Strategy – age appropriate curricula – struggled with wider policy shift towards outcomes2008 – New 'Priorities for Youth' Policy consultation begins

24 An Clearer Focus? 2003 a 'revised' curriculum document reflected: – impact of EU Peace funding – Role of JEDI project values of equity, diversity and interdependence, reflecting the changes in the sector and society presented an incongruous fudge between the 'conservative pluralism' in 1997 and a more 'radical pluralism' that the sector experienced in as a result of the peace funding

25

26 Curriculum and Programme Development Cycle

27 Priorities for Youth Strategic Alignment of Youth Work with Department of Education Priorities Non-formal education role complementing, reinforcing and enhancing the learning that takes place in formal education settings Emphasis on ‘outcomes,’ ‘evidence’ and ‘planning’ and ‘performance management’ Funding restricted to ‘priorities’

28 Priorities for Youth Priority 1: Raising Standards – planning at regional level – more focused age groups Priority 2: Closing the Performance Gap – address educational disadvantage – targeted provision/ financial cap on non-targeted – extended provision Priority 3: Develop workforce – performance management systems – Outcomes/ Evidence/ Measurement Priority 4: Improving the Learning Environment Priority 5: Governance & Management – significant changes to funding mechanisms

29 Conclusions Curriculum born and evolved as an imposed 'political project' characterized by bureaucracy Evidence of a shift from 'content' to 'process‘ "Control through the legitimization of discourse?“ Emphasis on 'programme' lead to 'instrumentality'? ("Why does youth work always look like youth work?") As the sector engaged with the discourse, emphasizing 'process', curriculum's political influence diminished. Can a 'process' orientated curriculum meet an 'outcomes' focused policy


Download ppt "Curriculum: A Paralysing Policy? Consider Concept of Curriculum Context in Northern Ireland Pre-Curriculum Curriculum Three Periods – Curriculum Imposed."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google