Presentation on theme: "The Khaksar Tehrik …in Pictures. Presentation for the New York Conference for Asian Studies October 2007 By Nasim Yousaf Author and Researcher."— Presentation transcript:
The Khaksar Tehrik …in Pictures
Presentation for the New York Conference for Asian Studies October 2007 By Nasim Yousaf Author and Researcher
Allama Mashriqi Founder of the Khaksar Movement
Nasim Yousaf (sitting center) with Mashriqi (standing)
In 1930, Mashriqi resigned from Government service and laid the foundation for the Khaksar Tehrik (Khaksar Movement).
His movement was not the result of a landslide. It was constructed painstakingly. Each entrant had to be persuaded… - Muhammad Saeeds (journalist) book, Lahore: A Memoir
Mashriqi (front row, right) led the first batch of Khaksars; he made no distinction between himself and his fellow Khaksars.
With the first batch of Khaksars, the foundation for the freedom of British India was laid.
Additional batches of Khaksars were formed all across India to deliver Mashriqis message.
Mashriqis message emphasized a soldierly life, equality, brotherhood, and a focus on self purification.
Mashriqi, Delivering a Speech
Here, a Khaksar delivers a lecture to fellow Khaksars.
The Khaksar Tehrik was dedicated to the service of mankind.
Khaksars Performing Social Service
"Long Live The Ideals of the Khaksars...Peace, Amity, Brotherhood, Service - Irrespective of Caste or Creed, One God, One Humanity, One Practical Religion, -- Yes, One Religion, Which Means Goodness In Action" - The Radiance (Aligarh), 1943
1934: The Khaksar Urdu weekly, Al-Islah, was launched.
Khaksar camps were held regularly to impart the Khaksar program.
A View of a Khaksar Camp
Khaksars Holding Mock Wars
Khaksar Leaders at a Khaksar Camp In picture: Sher Zaman, Pir Baksh and Dr. Nazar Muhammad
Khaksar parades instilled the spirit among the public to rise for freedom.
Khaksars marched in military formation for miles on the streets of India.
The Khaksar Tehrik was a well-disciplined organization. Mashriqi (on the right) with his children.
By the late 1930s, the Khaksar Movement had spread to every corner of India and had millions of followers and supporters. The Tehrik also had branches in foreign countries.
The Government felt threatened by the formidable discipline of this grassroots Movement. Consequently, the Punjab Government imposed restrictions on the Movement in February, 1940.
On March 19, 1940, police opened fire against Khaksars protesting the ban, and indiscriminately killed or injured many innocent Khaksars.
Serious Clash Between Khaksars And Police The Tribune (Lahore), March 20, 1940
Allama Mashriqi was arrested on March 19, 1940 following the Khaksar tragedy. The Tribune (Lahore), March 21, 1940
Police also injured Mashriqis son, Ehsanullah Khan Aslam, on March 19, 1940. He later succumbed to his injuries and died on May 31, 1940.
With the Governments actions, the Khaksars long, tough, and most unparalleled fight against British rule in India began.
Muslim Leagues Historic Session – March, 1940 Khaksars were tear gassed (left) while the League session was in progress (right).
In 1941, the Government of British India banned the Khaksar Tehrik throughout the entire India.
In January of 1942, Mashriqi was released from jail, but his movements were restricted. In December of 1942, the restrictions on Mashriqi were removed, and he was once again able to address the public.
A Crowd Listening to Mashriqis Speech
Mashriqi put in sincere efforts to bring about the famous Jinnah-Gandhi meeting in order for the two to settle their political issues and undo the Divide and Rule policy of the British; historians have thus far neglected this effort. Jinnah-Gandhi Meeting
Following the failure of the Jinnah-Gandhi meeting, Mashriqi presented The Constitution of Free India, 1946. A.C. to keep India united.
In 1946, Mashriqi took steps to bring about a forcible end to British rule and called the Azad Hind Fauj Conference. Major General S.D. Khan, Col. Ihsan Qadir, and others also came to meet Mashriqi.
Major General S.D. Khan of the Indian National Army, with Mashriqi.
Transfer of Power Announced Mashriqi and others efforts toward independence did not go unnoticed. By 1947, circumstances in India had reached a boiling point, and the British had no choice but to announce a transfer of power.
In March of 1947, Mashriqi asked 300,000 Khaksars to assemble in Delhi by June 30 of the same year. This was to ensure that the British would follow through on the transfer of power, and that India would remain undivided.
Despite stern measures to prevent the Khaksar rally, 70,000 to 80,000 Khaksars (according to media reports) assembled in Delhi at the end of June, 1947. But it seemed that nothing could now stop the division of India.
In 1947, Pakistan and India emerged on the world map as separate countries, and the nation was divided into three parts.
Mashriqis dream of an independent, united India did not materialize. It is important to note, however, that British India would not have been able to seek freedom without the efforts of people like Mashriqi.
Allama Mashriqi Died in 1963 Dawn (Karachi), August 28, 1963
Mashriqis Funeral Nasim Yousaf (right side in circle) with Mashriqis body.
Well over 100,000 people attended Mashriqis funeral. With his death, a chapter in the history of the Indian subcontinent came to a close.