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MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL - 13 -16 June 2005 Status of advanced reactors and fuel cycles The synergism among.

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Presentation on theme: "MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL - 13 -16 June 2005 Status of advanced reactors and fuel cycles The synergism among."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 Status of advanced reactors and fuel cycles The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies – a challenging task Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica Argentina

2 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina The foreseen scenario for a new world, beyond the globalization, is: Interdependent Integrated Regional organized Flexible market in expansion Energy dependent Environmental friendly Base on international collaboration

3 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Present Nuclear Technology is mature and it will last for 20 years more with life extension but...does not satisfy the new requirements. Evolutive nuclear systems will cover the transition from the present to the innovative technology. NTDT Systems do not satisfy either future requirements or long term demand Innovative Nuclear Systems should be sustainable...

4 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Do not need nuclear energy in the short and medium term and likely not in the long term!!! For nuclear energy to be considered an option Innovations should have many answers in terms of safety, waste management and radiological protection. a.org Nuclear is the solution for global sustainable energy needs if CO 2 emissions should be reduced! Innovation will improve economics, safety and environmental impact but present technology is mature.

5 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAFETY NON- PROLIFERATION LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY SUSTAINABILITY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

6 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina ECONOMYSAFETY NON- PROLIFERATION Nuclear Energy should be competitive with the most economic source of energy of any kind. Nuclear Safety of new systems should ensure a compatible risk probability with the foreseen level of technology of the second part of the century Proliferation risk should be almost reduced to cero by intrinsic and extrinsic features in the new nuclear systems

7 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina ENVIRONMENT RADIACTIVE WASTE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL Environmental impact of nuclear energy should be well within the expected standards and values foreseen for the second half of the century Waste management issue should be solved for the second half of the century by demonstration of present technology or by reducing the time frame of its harmful effects. Infrastructure, regulation, political and technical commitment should be well developed in the countries (present and future) by using nuclear energy.

8 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 Gen IV INPRO MICANET GT-MHR I-NERI PBMR IRIS The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Close cycle+FR Russia, India, France, ROK, China, Japan? under INPRO FUJI MSR RTFR

9 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The purpose of Gen IV is to develop nuclear energy systems that would be available for worldwide deployment by 2030 or earlier. Comparative advantages include: reduced capital cost, enhanced nuclear safety, minimal generation of nuclear waste, and further reduction of the risk of weapons materials proliferation. The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

10 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June is a high-temperature, high- pressure water-cooled reactor that operates above the thermodynamic critical point of water (374 degrees Celsius, 22.1 MPa, or 705 degrees Fahrenheit, 3208 psia).... is a graphite- moderated, helium- cooled reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle.... produces fission power in a circulating molten salt fuel mixture with an epithermal- spectrum reactor and a full actinide recycle fuel cycle. The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

11 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina The GFR´s and SFR´s fast spectrum also makes it possible to use available fissile and fertile materials (including depleted uranium) considerably more efficiently than thermal spectrum reactors with once-through fuel cycles....is a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal- cooled reactor and a closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides....is a fast-spectrum, sodium- cooled reactor and a closed fuel cycle for efficient management of actinides and conversion of fertile uranium....is a fast-neutron-spectrum, helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle. The LFR battery is a small factory- built turnkey plant operating on a closed fuel cycle with very long refueling interval (15 to 20 years) cassette core or replaceable reactor module.

12 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina INPRO (INternational PROyect on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle) objectives are:  Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21 st century in a sustainable manner, and to  Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles.

13 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina INPRO (INternational PROject on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle) Development of a Methodology for the Assessment of suitable INS for future deployment (Basic Principles User Requirements and Criteria on Economics, Sustainability and Environment, Safety, Waste Management, Proliferation Resistance and Infrastructure) 2000/2002 Methodology Assessment throughout National and Individual Case Studies 2003/2004

14 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina  Facilitate assessments of INS by MS (nationally or jointly) using the updated INPRO methodology as stated in the IAEA General Conference Resolution GC(48)/RES/13(F), which invites all Member States to perform “innovative nuclear energy systems assessments”;  Identification of possible frameworks and implementation options for collaborative R&D for INS development, which could be performed during Phase 2;  Enhance collaboration, on a complementary and synergetic basis, with other national and international INS initiatives (e.g. GIF); Dead line June 2006

15 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina METHODOLOGY Further development of INPRO methodology and refinement of the assessment method in all INPRO areas. INSTITUTIONAL - INFRASTRUCTURE  Undertake relevant studies and analysis to evaluate the potential role of INS for sustainable development;  Facilitate the application of INPRO methodology to provide guidance for INS deployment strategies at a national, regional, or global scale, with emphasis on the needs of developing countries;  Assistance for and facilitation of harmonization of licensing and industrial codes and standards, maintenance or development of necessary competences and experience, research facilities, etc. for INS. R&D Provide a forum to enable identification and prioritization of R&D needed Identify and enable specific R&D to be performed under IAEA / INPRO auspices Encourage, provide guidance and assistance to interested IAEA Member States to perform joint research and implement projects for INS development. Starting date July 2006

16 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Michelangelo network; competitiveness and sustainability of nuclear energy in the European union. The objective of MICANET is to propose a strategy for the European R&D aimed at keeping the industrial nuclear option open in 21st Century. The approach will be global, including all aspects, from fuel cycle front end to final disposal, from technical-economic issues to political, social and psychological dimensions of acceptance, connecting in a network projects that can contribute to MICANET objectives. MICANET will act for the development an effective/active European partnership to the U.S. initiative GENERATION IV. Project period expired

17 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 SOUTH AFRIKA PBMR The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Reactor vessel is a vertical steel pressure enclosure 6 meters in diameter and 20 meters high. The enclosure is lined with a layer of graphite bricks which serve as an outer reflector and a passive heat transfer mechanism. This lining is drilled with vertical holes for insertion of the control rods. The inner reactor core portion consists of two zones and is 3.7 meters in diameter and 9.0 meters high. The inner zone, contains approximately 185,000 graphite spheres and the outer zone, contains approximately 370,000 fuel spheres. The graphite spheres serve as a moderator for the nuclear reaction. This moderator slows the prompt neutrons. The reactor is cooled by Helium. Investors in the PBMR project are Eskom, the South African Industrial Development Corporation and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL)

18 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina USA IRIS International Reactor Innovative & Secure The IRIS reactor is a light-water reactor (LWR). It is modular in design, each module capable of producing between 100 and 300 megawatts of electricity. It has an integral design-the steam generators, pumps, and pressurizer inside the reactor vessel. Each unit would have eight modular, once-through steam generators that would be connected to four steam and feed piping connections. Construction cost for one module, reduced through factory fabrication, is expected to be between $200 and $300 million. The IRIS team is an international consortium led by Westinghouse and consisting of vendors, energy companies, and universities from seven countries, including Brazil, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

19 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 GT-MHR USA- Russia-Japan The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), will be built as modules of 285 MWe each directly driving a gas turbine at 48% thermal efficiency.Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor The cylindrical core consists of 102 hexagonal fuel element columns of graphite blocks with channels for helium and control rods. Graphite reflector blocks are both inside and around the core. Half the core is replaced every 18 months. Burn-up is about 100 GWd/t, and coolant outlet temperature is 850°C with a target of 1000°C. Initially it will be used to burn pure ex-weapons plutonium at Tomsk in Russia. The preliminary design stage was completed in Plant costs are expected to be less than US$ 1000 /kW and total generating cost 2.9 c/kWh. It is being developed by General Atomics (USA) in partnership with Russia's Minatom, supported by Fuji (Japan).

20 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina The FUJI MSR is being developed internationally by a Japanese, Russian and US consortium. The FUJI MSR is a 100 MWe design operating as a near-breeder. The attractive features of this MSR fuel cycle include: the high-level waste comprising fission products only, hence shorter- lived radioactivity; small inventory of weapons-fissile material (Pu-242 being the dominant Pu isotope); low fuel use; and safety due to passive cooling up to any size. MSR CONCEPT

21 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina EURATOM ADS Partitioning Cluster ADS Transmutation Clusters TESTRA ASCHLIM MEGAPIE TECLA SPIRE BASTRA MUSE HINDAS n-TOF _ND_ADS FUETRA FUTURE CONFIRM THORIUM CYCLE PYROREP PARTNEW CALIXPART The MEGAPIE-TEST project covers the experimental and analytical R&D work performed for the 1 MW lead-bismut eutectic (LBE) spallation target that will be irradiated in the SINQ facility PSI (Switzerland) International partners are: Belgium (SCK.CEN), France (CEA), Germany (FZK), Italy (ENEA), Switzerland (PSI), Japan (JAERI), ROK (KAERI) USA (DoE)

22 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina Conceptual scheme of a Fuel Rod made by a (Th,U)O 2 dispersion THORIUM CYCLE PROJECT develop Thorium base fuel... ELECTRONIC MICROGRAPH OF MICROSFERS OBTEIN BY SPRAYDRYING DE (U,Th) O 2 SINTERED AT 1,650°C BY 10 h IN A Ar-5 % H 2 FLOW Others ADS fuels... CONFIRM Project: evaluation of nitride fuel (U-Pu, Pu-Zr and Am-Zr) FUTURE Project: investigation on oxides fuel Pu-Am, Th-Pu-Am and Pu- Am-Zr Nitride fuel pellets with actinides for testing in the ATR.

23 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina The Radkowsky Thorium Fuel Reactor (RTFR) concept is not a reactor design, but rather a fuel and fuel-cycle concept that can be adapted for use in water-cooled reactors. Although applicable in principle to both light- water-cooled and heavy-water-cooled reactors, the design focus to date has been on LWR applications (PWRs). The RTFR fuel concept consists of a seed-blanket unit fuel assembly containing enriched uranium (less than 20%235U) in the central region and thorium in the surrounding blanket. The blanket material also contains a small amount (about 0.1 %) of enriched uranium. The principal benefits of the concept include the use of abundant thorium fuel, which preserves uranium resources, and a substantial reduction in the quantities of uranium-derived actinides that are produced during reactor operation. RTFR is an international collaboration among USA, Japan and Israel

24 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina An assessment will be carried out as a Joint Study covering innovative nuclear energy systems based on closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors. In line with the principles of the INPRO methodology, must satisfy the conditions for sustainable development, strengthening of the non- proliferation regime, and solving of energy problems at global, regional and national level in the 21st century. The activities under this Joint Study are aimed to contribute to the achievement of the overall goals of Phase 1B of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The scope of the INSs will be based on the most promising solutions in the field of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor technologies. Scheduled time frame: beginning of 2005 – middle of The assessment will be carried out by Russia, India, France, ROK, China and likely Japan under INPRO procedures.

25 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina INternational PROject on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) STRONG COMMITMENT OF PARTNERS HIGH INVESTMENT IN R & D MADE BY LEADING COUNTRIES AND PRESENT TECHNOLOGY HOLDERS R & D ORIENTED WIDTH BASIS FOR SELECTION OF CONCEPTS OPEN TO ALL IAEA MS INS ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AGREE UPON TRYOUT AND CONSENSUS WELL POSITIONED FOR DEVELOPING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION AND PROMOTE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MAINLY ORIENTED TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BILATERAL PROJECTS STRONG COMMITMENT OF PARTNERS ADEQUATED TO REGIONAL OR COUNTRIES INTEREST BUDGET ACCORDING TO POSSIBILITIES MANPOWER SUPPORTED BY PARTNERS ORGANIZATIONS

26 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina There is not overlapping of strengths among present innovative nuclear technology International Projects and Programs...but, …final target and objectives should be clarified for enhance the collaboration.

27 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina  Non-proprietary results of R & D avoiding mistakes and duplication of effort and resources,  Consensus on non-proliferant technologies features, both intrinsic and extrinsic,  Agreements on international certification, standards and codes,  Knowledge Management and Education strategies and programs  Way of financing of new projects in developing countries  Public awareness and innovative way to inform them BILATERAL PROJECTS INternational PROject on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO)

28 MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL June 2005 The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto Cirimello Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina...for your attention.


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