Presentation on theme: "CONTROLS The Age of Intelligent Systems Has Arrived …I REALLY LOVE MY JOB ! ASU EE Pathways Seminar Thursday, October 17 th 2013 Arizona State University."— Presentation transcript:
CONTROLS The Age of Intelligent Systems Has Arrived …I REALLY LOVE MY JOB ! ASU EE Pathways Seminar Thursday, October 17 th 2013 Arizona State University Armando A. Rodriguez Professor of Electrical Engineering Intelligent Embedded Systems Laboratory (IeSL) GWC 352, firstname.lastname@example.org http://aar.faculty.asu.edu
Revolutionary Times For the first time in history, amazing new computing technologies are becoming accessible to the masses! - Intelligent Systems Are Coming…. - Intelligent Systems Require Feedback… - This is what controls is about!
What Is Controls? r eu didi dodo K P n y Controller Plant Design K s.t. closed loop system exhibits stability and high performance. (Want y = r) - P : Physical System/Process to be Controlled - K : System to be Designed actual outputdesired output controlerror sensor noise disturbances
Example: Vehicle Cruise Control P - Vehicle r - Speed reference command (desired speed) y - Actual speed u - Fuel flow to engine K - Controller –Want y = r –Actual speed to follow speed commands
Issues Nonlinear Dynamics –Ordinary/partial differential equations –Saturating actuators (hard control limits); Rate limits Noninvertible Dynamics –Instabilities (unbounded solutions, characteristic roots in open right half plane) –Time delays and other lag effects Uncertainty – only nominal models are available –Dynamic Actuator and sensor dynamics High frequency parasitics –Structural modes (e.g. flexible spacecraft); Time delays (e.g. CVD furnace) –Parametric: Masses, aerodynamic coefficients, friction coefficients, etc. –Stochastic Disturbances and Sensor Noise Amplitude, mean, variance, and spectral content Digital Implementation Issues –Sampling and actuation rates –Analog-to-digital and Digital-to-analog - speed, resolution, quantization/reconstruction error –Measurement noise, time delays (phase lag), and nonlinearities Research: Need Systematic Control System Design Methodology
Modeling, Simulation, Analysis - Determination of Realistic Design Specifications Design Control System (via Model-Based Optimization) - typically on the basis of linearized models - gain scheduling (“glue” control design together) Evaluate design using hi-fidelity simulator Design Implementation (Rapid prototyping) - computer, microprocessor, DSP, FPGAs Hardware Evaluation NOTE: Control system design process is highly iterative! Control System Design Process
CLAIM: Controls Is Everywhere… …It is InherentlyMultidisciplinary... it touches all disciplines…
Acoustic - acoustic cancellation for a concert hall; intelligent hearing devices Aerospace - altitude hold system for aircraft; all-weather landing system; control of remotely piloted vehicles; launch vehicles; control of reconfigurable aircraft Automation and Manufacturing – coordination of autonomous robots; resource allocation within a semiconductor fabrication facility Biological - neuromuscoloskeletal control systems; cardiovascular control systems; disease and epidemic containment What Needs To Be Controlled?
Capital Investment - variable risk securities portfolio risk/return; asset management Defense - high performance fighters; tactical missiles; ballistic missile theatre defense; guidance and navigation; combat assault helicopters Ecological - global warming and ozone depletion policy Economics - money supply and interest rate management Electrical/Chemical - diffusion furnaces; semiconductor processes; read/write head control for storage Mechanical - active suspension for mobile laboratory Materials - control of smart composite (deformable) materials
What Needs To Be Controlled? Medical - control of telemedical robotic systems (e.g. microscope positioning and vibration suppression) for precision surgery Nuclear - temperature control for nuclear reactor Ocean - depth control for underwater exploration vehicle; submarine Public Policy - resource allocation for urban planning and homeland security Space Based Surveillance - pointing control system for telescopic imaging, weather, surveillance, monitoring system; satellites Space Exploration – interplanetary probes, crew exploration vehicle, robotic vehicles (e.g. Mars rovers) Structural - active earthquake control for skyscrapers
Pretty Amazing List! Does the list help you understand what control engineers do?
Aerospace: Boeing, Lockheed Martin, NASA, Orbital Sciences, Raytheon, United Technologies, etc. Automotive: Chrysler, Ford, GM, etc. Chemical: Exxon Mobil, Pfizer, Proctor and Gamble, etc. Communications: AT&T, Verizon, etc. Energy: General Electric, Honeywell, SRP, etc. Financial: Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan, etc. Medical: Medtronics, etc. Networks: Cisco, etc. Robotics: Boston Dynamics, Caterpillar, Sandia, etc. Semiconductors: AMD, Applied Materials, Intel, IBM, TI, etc. Software: MathWorks, Microsoft, etc. Etc…...think multidisciplinary…do NOT close doors unnecessarily!
Participate in Ongoing Technological Revolution!!!
New Technologies are Coming! New Propulsion Technologies Smart Materials and Structures Miniature Electromechanical Systems (MEMs), Nanotechnology, Spintronics Optical, Biological, and Quantum Computing Machines Distributed Computation New Sensing and Actuation Technologies Regenerative and Personalized Medicine System-on-a-Chip Solutions
Battery Technology for Electric Vehicles 9-19-13 Solid state battery could double range Green Biofuels Advanced Communications: Cognitive Radio Massive Storage Density Memory; e.g. Library of Congress on a chip Content-Rich Mobile Libraries Early Disease Diagnosis DNA Sequencing - cost has been dramatically reduced Immersive Teaching Software
Online Learning for All Advanced Super Computers China Tianhe-2 33.86 petaFlops (10^15) High Speed Rail Vaccines for Every Flu Strain Advanced Prosthetics Personalized Prescriptions – medicine is become personalized! Disposal of Toxic/Radioactive Waste Real-Time Language Translation - currently ~ 5Kwords/day, $0.12/word
Regenerative Medicine - Organ Growth, testing medicines on human cells Air Traffic Control Self-Sufficient Buildings Cell-Targeting Medicine Advanced Armour Hypersonic Vehicles; e.g. X- 43A (M7, 10, 2004), X-51 (M5, 300 sec, 5-2013)…heat driven design Advanced Robotic Systems Smart Energy Grid
Efficient Cost Effective Solar Cells 10-9-13 44.7% efficiency Nanotechnology; e.g. carbon nanotubes 2012 (Nature) – IBM spintronics memory breakthrough 10-11-2013 – “Iron Man” Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit (Talos) - US Army, MIT, nanotechnology, msec liquid armour, on board computer, enhanced situational awareness, night vision, enhanced strength, walk through stream of bullets, life support, etc. USAF Flapping Wing MAVs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5YkQ9w3PJ4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5YkQ9w3PJ4 Prosthetic Arm: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qUPnnROxvY
31 SOME VIDEOS Renewable Energy http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/34234-ecopolis-biofuel-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/34234-ecopolis-biofuel-video.htm (Algae, goto 1:20) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cysaOnlv_Ehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cysaOnlv_E (20% Renewable Energy by 2020) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XSr5BhAXSwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XSr5BhAXSw (ASU Biodesign Institute) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oy8dzOB-Ykghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oy8dzOB-Ykg (Hydrogen fuel cells for cars) Boston Dynamics’ BIG DOG http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1czBcnX1Ww NASA X-43A Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicle – Mach 7, 10 (2004) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiBsD-cafH8 Boeing 787 Dreamliner http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-10635444 Carbon Nanotubes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQAK4xxPGfM http://vega.org.uk/video/programme/71 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikYhyjPjKBs Regenerative Organs/Medicine http://interactmd.com/content/organ-regeneration-talk-videohttp://interactmd.com/content/organ-regeneration-talk-video (goto 11 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7eM3zOffI4 Personalized Medicine http://www.technologyreview.com/video/?vid=524 Supercomputers http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/most-popular-supercomputing-videos/http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/most-popular-supercomputing-videos/ (goto 55sec) Electronic Devices http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPIbGq634yUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPIbGq634yU (Spintronics) Intellectual Property http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Yp_Xj6YshM
Select Research Projects! (stuff I’ve worked on)
Specific Areas of Research Optimization Based Control System Design for –MIMO Nonlinear Systems –Distributed Parameter Systems –Systems with Multiple Hard Nonlinearities –Sampled Data and Multi-Rate Systems Application Areas –Aerospace and robotic systems, space structures, semiconductors, low power electronics, advanced vehicles and transportation systems
Research Focal Areas Modeling, Simulation Animation, and Real-Time Control (MoSART) Flexible Autonomous Machines operating in an uncertain Environment (FAME) Intelligent Embedded Systems Integrated Real-Time Health Monitoring, Modeling, and Fault-Tolerant Control –Fault detection, classification, and control law adaptation –Reconfigurable hardware (FPGAs)
Select Control Projects Semiconductor Manufacturing Facility (e.g. fab scheduling) Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Missile Guidance and Control Systems (e.g. Patriot, EMRAAT) High Performance Jets (e.g. JSF, High Speed Civil Transport) Rotorcraft (e.g. Blackhawk, Apache, TLHS), Tilt-wing Rotorcraft (TWRC) Unpilotted Air Vehicles (UAVs), Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicle Control and Design Jet Engines (e.g. GE turbofan) Submarines Automotive (e.g. cruise, engine emissions, suspension, noise cancellation) Flexible Space Structure (e.g. SPICE: Laser Weapon, Telescope) Satellites, Spacecraft, and space probes (e.g. JIMO) Intelligent Robotic Systems (e.g. Astronaut Personal Satellite Assistant -PSA) Intelligent Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems Power Conversion (e.g. DC-DC converters) Fishery & Irrigation System Management, Sustainable Systems
A Message Modeling and Simulation is used everywhere! You don’t build a –787 Dreamliner –Pentium Chip –F22 Raptor, Joint Strike Fighter, etc… –Space Shuttle without investing a few billion in M&S!
Modeling and Simulation is just getting started! The Age of Intelligent Systems is Upon Us!
New Technologies are Coming! New Propulsion Technologies Smart Materials and Structures Miniature Electromechanical Systems (MEMs), Nanotechnology, Spintronics Optical and Biological Computing Machines Distributed Computation New Sensor and Actuation Technologies Regenerative and Personalized Medicine
Intel Chandler, AZ Allocation of Resources within a Reentrant Semiconductor Manufacturing Line (e.g. Pentium Fab) Maximize $$ in presence of machine/customer/process uncertainty Minimize average throughput time –make promises Minimize variance of throughput time –keep promises
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) ASU Method for depositing single crystals Source material heated to produce evaporated beam of particles - travel through ultra-high vacuum onto substrate Slow deposition rate ~1000 nm/hr Used for growing III-V semi crystals Thin filmed semiconductor materials Control thickness – single layer of atoms
Thermal Management of Multi-Core Processors Intel Maximize performance per watt Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) –Increase voltage or frequency (CPU throttling) to increase performance –In progress
Honeywell Transport Systems Glendale, AZ High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Mach 2.2, 300 + passengers Automatic Landing System Issues: –Long, thin, flexible
Integrated Real-Time Health Monitoring, Modeling, and Controls for Future NASA Missions Next generation general “avionics” (C4) box for –Crew exploration vehicle –Rovers –Astronaut life support
Integrated Real-Time Health Monitoring, Modeling, and Controls for Future NASA Missions Partners –NASA Ames, JPL, Kennedy Space Center –Rockwell, Nuvation –Carnegie Mellon, Iowa State Fault Tolerance –3 Levels: 1. Chip level - Reconfigurable fault-tolerant hardware (FPGAs) 2. Board level 3. System/Actuator/Sensor level
NASA’s Astronaut Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) NASA Ames Designed to hover around spacecraft Accelerometers, gyros, Video, infrared Monitors critical parameters/signals (e.g. air temperature and composition, supplies) ; detect structural/tile flaws Assists astronauts with day-to-day tasks, reduce work load, communicates with Mission Control
NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Explore 3 planet-sized moons of Jupiter - Callisto, Ganymede and Europa –May harbor vast oceans beneath icy surfaces; Date: 2015 or later??? –Galileo spacecraft found evidence that Jupiter's large icy moons appear to have 3 ingredients considered essential for life: water, energy, other essential chemical contents –Evidence suggests melted water on Europa in contact with surface (geologically recent times); might still lie close to surface Issues: –Significant mass changes –Flexible structure –Nuclear reactor –Precision pointing
Honeywell Satellite Systems Glendale, AZ Space Integrated Controls Experiment (SPICE) Laser Beam Expander (Missile Defense) Space Telescope Control System Design –Rapid Slewing and Precision Pointing of Flexible Structrure
Raytheon Missile Systems Beford, MA Patriot Missile Autopliot Design Surface to Air Missile (SAM) Skid to turn (STT) Missile
Eglin AFB Pensacola, FL Extended Medium Range Air-to-Air Technology (EMRAAT) Missile Autopilot Design Focus on control saturation prevention strategies during endgame Missile Defense Systems are Here! Secret Security Clearance Required
Sikorsky Aircraft UH-60 Blackhawk Helicopter Flight Control System Design AFCS Design for a Twin Lift Helicopter System (TLHS) Sponsors: DOD, Sikorsky, MIT/Princeton NASA, NSF, Bell Labs
Helicopters: Open Loop Unstable Data: UH-60A Blackhawk Near Hover
Boeing Space and Defense Systems Seattle, WA Boeing A.D. Welliver Fellowship - Battle Management M&S of Two Major Regional Conflicts (MRCs) Command, Control, Communications (C 3 ) - Joint Strike Fighter (F-35) - Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Tilt-Wing Motivation Fixed Wing –Runway, High Speed, No Hover Rotary Wing (Helicopters) –Only VTOL, Low Speed, Hover Tilt-Rotor (i.e. V-22 Osprey) –VSTOL Only, High Speed, Hover, Aerodynamically Inefficient Tilt-Wing –Full Runway or VSTOL, High Speed, Hover, More Efficient Aerodynamics
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) Flapping wing MAV with embedded cavities –exploit vorticity to minimize drag Insect-inspired Swarms Applications: –Search –Reconnaissance http://www.nd.edu/~mav/research.htm –Remotely piloted, semi-autonomous, or autonomous sensor platform (e.g. chemcial, biological, infrared, etc.) Prototype Development….shooting for NAV…
FAME @ ASU ROVER (EE/MAE) –Autonomous Vehicle –Real Time Vision System –On board Pentium Class CPU –Wireless Communication –Suite of Networked Stations (Brain) –search, rescue, reconnaissance, exploration, etc.
FAME @ ASU ARVID - Robotic Projector –Track Performers 2 DOF Pointing Systems Mechanical Bull Interactive Media and Protoyping (IMaP) Laboratory Collaboration between EE and Institute for Studies in the Arts (ISA)
Low Power DC-DC Converters Regulates voltage in presence of line voltage variations and load variations Issues –high frequency operation – excessive power consumption, sensitivity to finite word length arithmetic –low frequency operation – lower power consumption, considerable phase lag within loop, design is hard Developed direct digital design methodology which takes into account sampled-data nature of problem Patent pending With Professor David Allee (ASU, EE)
Fishery Management World fisheries are over exploited Gordon-Schaefer bioeconomic models (Clark, 1970) Maximize profit subject to fish biomass constraint Maximize fish biomass subject to economic constraint Need effective regulatory policies; e.g. taxes, quotas, etc. Design of Robust Policies for Uncertain Natural Resource Systems: Application to Classic Gordon-Schaefer Model http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design-of-robust-policies-for- uncertain-natural-resource-systems-application-to-the-classic-gordon-s/ http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design-of-robust-policies-for- uncertain-natural-resource-systems-application-to-the-classic-gordon-s/ Partners: Jeff Dickeson (PhD student) Marty Anderies (School of Sustainability) Marco Jansen (School of Sustainability) Elinor Ostrom (Nobel Prize in Economics, 2009)
Irrigation System Management Best Paper Award Robustness, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity in small-scale social-ecological systems: The Pumpa Irrigation System in Nepal http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art39/ Partners: Oguzhan Cifdaloz (former PhD student, Post Doc) Ashok Regmi (Post Doc) Marty Anderies (School of Sustainability)
Portfolio Management Financial Engineering Maximize return subject to risk constraint Minimize risk subject to minimum return constraint Diversification Asset/sector allocation based on national/global macro- economic models
Result 1 Problem Solved –Given an plant P (possibly infinite-dimensional) described by a linear time invariant (LTI) model, how can we approximate it by a finite-dimensional model P n to ensure that the resulting optimization-based control design K n stabilizes P and meets an apriori performance tolerance? Solution based on convexification of the problem; can exploit convex optimization (e.g. polynomial-time interior point algorithms) Applications: Semiconductor processes, flexible structures, aerospace
Result 2 Problem Solved –Given a controller K which offers acceptable global performance for external commands, disturbances, and sensor noise, how can we modify it to accommodate actuator control limits and other hard limits? Solution exploits ideas from the theory of non- differentiable Lyapunov functions Applications: Aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, robotic systems
Summary You MUST get a PhD You MUST Become A Professor ! …the Nation needs you …You will have lots of fun! … There is so much to do! Visit: http://aar.faculty.asu.edu/lapdp.htmlhttp://aar.faculty.asu.edu/lapdp.html