Presentation on theme: "BL 406 Human & Comparative Anatomy. What is this course about? Human & Comparative Anatomy Human Focuses on us, humans. Comparative Examines similarities."— Presentation transcript:
BL 406 Human & Comparative Anatomy
What is this course about? Human & Comparative Anatomy Human Focuses on us, humans. Comparative Examines similarities & differences among humans and other vertebrates. Anatomy Tissue or organ level of structure. It’s basically a hybrid course focused on anatomy as a biological science.
Comparison - Homology What does it mean to be “the same” thing?
“Modern” Types of Homology Phylogenetic Homology = Homology of structures among different species. Sexual Homology = Homology of structures among individuals of different sexes in the same species. Serial Homology = Homology of structures within an organism. Developmental Homology = Homology of structures within the same organism over time.
Human Serial, Sexual, & Developmental Homology Serial Sexual Devel.
Inclusive Homology Definition Homology = similarity due to continuity of biological information or instruction. VanValen, 1984/Hasprunar, 1992 What is that information? Genes
Evolutionary Misconception Misconception = Evolution is linearly directed with humans the “highest” organisms. Common Decent = organisms share geneological descent; evolution = branching; NOT linear Speciation forms new species (change independently).
Views of Evolution
Diagrams Phylogenetic tree / Cladogram = Branching diagram that represents evolutionary relationships among species.
Monophyletic Group Monophyletic group (Clade) = A group composed of an ancestor and all of its descendants; everything an ancestor becomes. Considered to be a historical individual. The ONLY taxonomic groups (above species) recognized to be real in this course.
Cladogram Shape Cladograms can be drawn in many different ways. The connections between organisms are the data. Position does NOT infer progress. Cladograms can be rotated around any node (the information does not change).
Cladogram Rotation ABCDE
Cladogram Style ABCDE A B C D E ABCDEABCDE ABCDE
Data Data = Variation among species. E.g., members of two species may be white and the members of three species may be red. BOTH red and white are NOT data. The inferred transformation from white to red or red to white is the datum.
Outgroup Outgroup = species or group outside the group being studied. Compare traits in the species studied to the outgroup. To determine which is the “ancestral” trait. out group ABCDE
Data Outgroup species is white suggests... Outgroup species is red suggests...
Phylogeny Reconstruction Chicken Pigeon Lizard Rat Human Frog- OG hair feathers scales amnion ureters
Phylogeny Reconstruction Chicken Pigeon Lizard Rat Human hair feathers scales ureters amnion
Phylogeny Reconstruction Snake Lizard Rat Frog Bass Shark- OG epidermal scales hemipenes amnion ear bones legs
Phylogeny Reconstruction bass frog snake mammal lizard shark ear bone amnion legs amnion lost scales hemi- penes sc. hp. 8
Phylogeny Reconstruction bass frog snake mammal lizard shark ear bone amnion scales hemipenes legs lost 6
Data Matrix dolphin hippopotamus cow camel human mouse Opossum-OG
Data Matrix Ostrich Emu Chicken Duck Gull Crow Robin Alligator-OG
How are they related? AusBusCus Dus OUTGROUP
Anatomical Directions Anterior – Posterior Dorsal – Ventral Medial – Lateral Proximal – Distal Also Superficial – Deep
right ventricle left ventricle left atrium right atrium aorta pulmonary trunk superior vena cava inferior vena cava right ventricle left ventricle left atrium right atrium aorta pulmonary trunk superior vena cava inferior vena cava
sternocleidomastoid Masseter Rectus abdominis part of quadriceps