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BL 406 Human & Comparative Anatomy. What is this course about? Human & Comparative Anatomy  Human Focuses on us, humans.  Comparative Examines similarities.

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Presentation on theme: "BL 406 Human & Comparative Anatomy. What is this course about? Human & Comparative Anatomy  Human Focuses on us, humans.  Comparative Examines similarities."— Presentation transcript:

1 BL 406 Human & Comparative Anatomy

2 What is this course about? Human & Comparative Anatomy  Human Focuses on us, humans.  Comparative Examines similarities & differences among humans and other vertebrates.  Anatomy Tissue or organ level of structure. It’s basically a hybrid course focused on anatomy as a biological science.

3 Comparison - Homology  What does it mean to be “the same” thing?

4 “Modern” Types of Homology  Phylogenetic Homology = Homology of structures among different species.  Sexual Homology = Homology of structures among individuals of different sexes in the same species.  Serial Homology = Homology of structures within an organism.  Developmental Homology = Homology of structures within the same organism over time.

5 Phylogenetic Homology

6 Human Serial, Sexual, & Developmental Homology Serial Sexual Devel.

7 Inclusive Homology Definition  Homology = similarity due to continuity of biological information or instruction. VanValen, 1984/Hasprunar, 1992  What is that information? Genes

8 Evolutionary Misconception  Misconception = Evolution is linearly directed with humans the “highest” organisms.  Common Decent = organisms share geneological descent; evolution = branching; NOT linear  Speciation forms new species (change independently).

9 Views of Evolution

10 Diagrams  Phylogenetic tree / Cladogram = Branching diagram that represents evolutionary relationships among species.

11 Monophyletic Group  Monophyletic group (Clade) = A group composed of an ancestor and all of its descendants; everything an ancestor becomes.  Considered to be a historical individual.  The ONLY taxonomic groups (above species) recognized to be real in this course.

12 Cladogram

13 Cladogram Shape  Cladograms can be drawn in many different ways.  The connections between organisms are the data.  Position does NOT infer progress.  Cladograms can be rotated around any node (the information does not change).

14 Cladogram Rotation ABCDE

15 ABCED

16 AEDBC

17 Cladogram Style ABCDE A B C D E ABCDEABCDE ABCDE

18 Data  Data = Variation among species.  E.g., members of two species may be white and the members of three species may be red.  BOTH red and white are NOT data.  The inferred transformation from white to red or red to white is the datum.

19 Outgroup  Outgroup = species or group outside the group being studied. Compare traits in the species studied to the outgroup. To determine which is the “ancestral” trait. out group ABCDE

20 Data  Outgroup species is white suggests...  Outgroup species is red suggests...

21 Phylogeny Reconstruction Chicken Pigeon Lizard Rat Human Frog- OG hair feathers scales amnion ureters 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

22 Phylogeny Reconstruction Chicken Pigeon Lizard Rat Human hair feathers scales ureters amnion

23 Phylogeny Reconstruction Snake Lizard Rat Frog Bass Shark- OG epidermal scales hemipenes amnion ear bones legs 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 000

24 Phylogeny Reconstruction bass frog snake mammal lizard shark ear bone amnion legs amnion lost scales hemi- penes sc. hp. 8

25 Phylogeny Reconstruction bass frog snake mammal lizard shark ear bone amnion scales hemipenes legs lost 6

26 Data Matrix 1 1234567 dolphin1010111 hippopotamus1010111 cow1000110 camel1000010 human0101010 mouse0101010 Opossum-OG0000000

27 Data Matrix 2 1234567 Ostrich1000011 Emu1000011 Chicken0010110 Duck0010110 Gull0001110 Crow0101110 Robin0101110 Alligator-OG0000000

28 How are they related? AusBusCus Dus OUTGROUP

29 Anatomical Directions Anterior – Posterior Dorsal – Ventral Medial – Lateral Proximal – Distal Also Superficial – Deep

30 Anatomical Directions Anterior – Posterior Cranial – Caudal Rostral - Caudal Dorsal – Ventral Medial – Lateral Proximal – Distal Also Superficial – Deep

31 Anatomical Directions Anterior – Posterior Cranial – Caudal Rostral - Caudal Dorsal – Ventral Medial – Lateral Proximal – Distal Also Superficial – Deep

32 Human Anatomical Directions

33 Human Anatomy-Cavities

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37 external jugular subclavian vein brachial veins inferior vena cava renal vein common iliac vein femoral vein brachio- cephalic vein internal jugular superior vena cava common carotid artery subclavian artery brachial artery descending aorta brachio- cephalic artery renal artery common iliac artery femoral artery

38 right ventricle left ventricle left atrium right atrium aorta pulmonary trunk superior vena cava inferior vena cava right ventricle left ventricle left atrium right atrium aorta pulmonary trunk superior vena cava inferior vena cava

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42 sternocleidomastoid Masseter Rectus abdominis part of quadriceps


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