2 1. The study of the surface of the earth and the relationship of people to their natural and physical environment is known asa. historyb. economicsc. geographyd. PoliticsGeography is the study of the surface of the earth, its landforms, topography, and climate, together with the relationship of various peoples to their physical and natural environment in different parts of the world.
3 2. Which of the following mountain ranges separate China from India? a. Altaib. Himalayasc. Pamird. Qin LingThere are a number of mountain ranges in, and bordering, China. China shares a land frontier more than 200,000 kilometers long with its neighbors. However, China is involved in border disputes with many of its neighbors. To the southwest are the Himalayas ("Abode of Snow") which separate China from the Indian subcontinent.
4 3. Why has the Huang He (Yellow River) been called China's Sorrow? a. It was the site of massive burials.b. Volcanic activity caused massive destruction.c. It was the source of water for irrigation.d. Periodic flooding of the river caused a great deal of deathand destruction.The 5,400 kilometer-long Huang He has been called China's Sorrow because in previous centuries the river used to flood its banks every year, causing massive death, destruction, and havoc in the countryside. The river flows through the North China Plain, the historic center of Chinese expansion and influence. In more recent years, thanks to the construction of a system of dams, flood management and conservation measures have brought the river under control
5 4. Seasonal winds, which blow alternately from the Asian mainland and from the Pacific Ocean, are accompanied by fierce storms. These seasonal winds are known asa. monsoonsb. typhoonsc. hurricanesd. TsunamisMonsoons are seasonal winds that blow alternately from the Asian mainland and from the Pacific Ocean. They are caused by differences in the heat-absorbing capacity of the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean. Since they blow in from the ocean, they carry a great deal of moisture. They are frequently accompanied by fierce storms and heavy rains in the summer months; the winter months have a dry monsoon.
6 5. The Chinese referred to their country during traditional times as the a. Middle Kingdomb. Soviet Unionc. Republic of Chinad. People's Republic of ChinaThe Chinese referred to their country in traditional times as the Middle Kingdom because they believed that it was at the center of the universe. Europeans referred to it as Cathay or China. Today, the Chinese characters for "China" still translate to read "Middle Country."
7 6. Which of the following is part of traditional Chinese medical practice? a. acupunctureb. herbal medicinesc. deep-breathing exercisesd. all of the aboveTraditional Chinese medicine used many practices to cure disease and ease suffering, including acupuncture, herbal medicines, and breathing exercises. Acupuncture seeks to normalize the flow of energy (qi or ch'i) within the body through the insertion of thin needles along the energy paths of the body. Acupuncture was effectively used as an anesthetic during surgery. Today, many Western doctors believe that acupuncture helps the body to heal itself.
8 7. Which of the following inventions originated in ancient China? a. compassb. block printingc. gunpowderd. all of the aboveThere were four major technological advances in ancient China. These "Four Great Inventions" were paper, block printing, gunpowder, and the compass. Each invention gradually spread throughout the entire world (by the process of cultural diffusion) and deeply influenced world civilization.
9 8. The ancient long-distance, overland trade route connecting China to Western Asia, and on to Europe and the Mediterranean region was known as thea. Great Wallb. Grand Canalc. Manchu dynastyd. Silk RoadThe ancient long-distance, overland trade route connecting China to Western Asia, and from there on to Europe and the Mediterranean region was known as the Silk Road. Silks and other exotic, rare, and expensive merchandise from China were traded to the West by camel caravans in exchange for linen, glass, minerals, and other items. This ancient trade route had been in existence since as early as the 1st century. Marco Polo and his family traveled along part of it on their journey to China in the 13th century.
10 9. During traditional times, China was ruled by an emperor who inherited his position usually from a male relative. A family of such hereditary rulers was known as aa. clanb. tribec. congressd. dynastyA dynasty is a series of rulers who follow each other successively in an unbroken line (they inherit the throne) and who belong to the same family or clan. The Xia was the first historic dynasty. The rule of the Zhou dynasty has been called the "Age of Philosophers" since many great thinkers, such as Confucius, Lao-Zi, and Mencius, lived during this time. During both the Yuan (Mongol) and Qing (Manchu) dynasties China was ruled by foreign emperors. The dynastic system of China ended in 1912, following the revolution of 1911.
11 10. Which of the following titles was given to the emperor of dynastic China during dynastic times? a. chairmanb. czarc. Son of Heavend. ShogunSince the emperor was considered to rule by the Mandate (right) of Heaven, he was given the title, the Son of Heaven. It was believed that if the emperor was a good and just ruler he would keep the Mandate from Heaven. If he was not a good ruler, the mandate would be taken away from him by Heaven. If the people were dissatisfied and unhappy with the emperor's rule, they had the right to rebel and replace him with another ruler.