RESILIENCE ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for Self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change ² ² SURJAN ET AL 2011 p19
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK CITY = (ECO)SYSTEM SYSTEMS THINKING
THE WORLD POPULATION DENSITIES ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS changing human conditions drive, both directly and indirectly, changes in biodiversity, changes in ecosystems, and ultimately changes in the services ecosystems provide.³ ³ MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT 2005 piii
THE ROLE OF BIODIVERSITY IN A ECOSYSTEM adapted from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ³
WINDHOEK THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK Over clearing of areas =habitat destruction /water run-off /Erosion /depletion The urgent conservation of the Windhoek underground aquifer pollution from industrial and urban waste, alien aquatic species and agricultural management practices =Threats to open water habitats Alien plant species =heavy burdens on the city’s water resources Proposed developments and heavy industry to the north of the City =destruction of the Klein Windhoek River Habitat.
WINDHOEK THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK Lack of access to electricity and fuel-efficient cook stoves =deforestation of slow-growing protected plant species EG the Camel thorn Over-harvesting and selling the pods of the Camel thorn tree, to feed livestock Sand harvesting leads = significant loss of Camel thorn trees and the destruction of their important riverine habitat +making the area susceptible to alien invasive species general Lack of environmental research, lack of awareness under policy makers and insufficient monitoring of the city’s natural resources and systems.
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN NEIGHBOURS ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK ANGOLA SOUTH AFRICA ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK Ministry of Agriculture, Water & Forestry Ministry of Fisheries AND Marine Resources Ministry of Environment and Tourism Ministry of Works AND Transport MINISTRY OF LANDS AND RESETTLEMENT MINISTRY OF REGIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND HOUSING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES MINISTRY OF GENDER EQUALITY AND CHILD WELLFARE MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND SOCIAL WELFARE MINISTRY OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY MINISTRY OF SAFETY AND SECURITY MINISTRY OF DEFENCE MINISTRY OF MINES AND ENERGY MINISTRY OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY MINISTRY OF YOUTH, MATIONAL SERVICE, SPORT AND CULTURE MISISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS AND IMMIGRATION MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS MINISTRY OF FINANCE
SLOW CHANGING INTERNAL FACTORS local governance, infrastructure, land-use & management, human rights, policy making, culture, values, long-term skills transfer local climate change, animal densities, local habitat stability, crop yields, water, soil and atmosphere quality, education, attitudes & trends, incentives, bylaws & rules fires, flash floods, disease outbreaks FAST CHANGING INTERNAL FACTORS FAST CHANGING EXTERNAL FACTORS civil wars, labour strikes (direct), markets, income & investments, media plague or epidemic outbreaks, seasonal climate changes, floods, drought, sinkholes SLOW CHANGING EXTERNAL FACTORS governance, labour strikes (indirect), world trends, neighbouring governments, world economy, skills transfer, regional development, regional rainfall, disease, climate change, regional habitat changes
general RESILIENCE ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK Diversity openness Reserves Tightness of feedbacks modularity
Specified resilience ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK MAIN ISSUES AND THEIR IMPACTS
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK MAPPING SOCIAL NETWORKS
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK ADRESS IDENTIFIED MAIN ISSUES AND THEIR IMPACTS ADRESS IDENTIFIED FACTORS OF CHANGE AND HOW THEY CAN BE AVOIDED
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK General recommendations for WINDHOEK to foster biological, economic and cultural diversity; bridge the massive social & geographical divides; address the explicit lack of education and housing; kerb social problems like poverty, HIV, violence, racism and prejudice; reduce the economy’s reliance on external factors; promote a holistic approach to governance; promote social networks which would encourage collaborative objectives and outcomes; promote sustainable practices and environmental awareness
A new sustainability ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK There are solutions to the major problems of our time; some of them even simple. But they require a radical shift in our perceptions, our thinking, our values 4 4 CAPRA 1996 p4
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF WINDHOEK Sources Bravenboer, B. 2004: Windhoek – Capital of Namibia. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan Publishers (Pty) Ltd Capra, F. 1996: The Web of Life – A New Synthesis of Mind and Matter. London: HarperCollins Publishers City of Windhoek Biodiversity Inventory. 2009. Compiled by Enviro Dynamics (Pty) Ltd, Windhoek Madanipour, A. 2003: Public and Private Spaces of the City. New York: Routledge. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005: Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. National Planning Commission. 2011: Namibia 2011 Population and Housing Census Preliminary Results Niikondo, A. 2010: Migrants to Cities and Towns in Namibia: What their Interests are? Polytechnic of Namibia http://ir.polytechnic.edu.na/bitstream/10628/249/1/Niikondo.%20Migrants%20to%20cities%20and%20towns%20in%20Namibia.pdf downloaded 10 October 2012 http://ir.polytechnic.edu.na/bitstream/10628/249/1/Niikondo.%20Migrants%20to%20cities%20and%20towns%20in%20Namibia.pdf Resilience Alliance. 2010: Assessing resilience in social-ecological systems: Workbook for practitioners. Version 2.0 Surjan, A; Sharma, A and Shaw, R. 2011: Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.