Introduction 4. Archaeology sheds light on the Bible: Archaeology: study of artifacts & remains of past civilizations 6
4. Archaeology sheds light on the Bible: Historical setting, customs, etc. illuminates: “Chs.1-38 reflect a great deal of what we know from other sources about ancient Mesopotamian life and culture. Creation, genealogies, destructive floods, geography and mapmaking, construction techniques, migrations of peoples, sale and purchase of land, legal customs and procedures, shepherding and cattle-raising….” (Genesis Introduction, NIV Study Bible, 2002, p. 1) 7
Introduction 4. Archaeology sheds light on the Bible: Verify Bible history & geography: accuracy of details consistent with Bible claim to be God’s Word No fact of archaeology contradicts Bible record 8
Introduction 5. Archaeology sheds light on Bible accounts: The Garden of Eden: origin of civilizations The universal flood of Noah’s time Abraham’s journey to Egypt Moses: author of the Pentateuch Edom, Moab, & the Hittites real people 9
10 8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
11 10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel [Tigris]: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
12 15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
I. The Garden of Eden: Origin of Civilizations C. Mesopotamia: Cradle of Civilization “Archaeological research has thus established beyond doubt that there is no focus of civilization in the earth that can begin to compete in antiquity and activity with the basin of the Eastern Mediterranean and the region immediately to the east of it—Breasted’s Fertile Crescent” (W.F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity, p. 6) 18
20 17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. 18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. 19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. 20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
21 21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. 23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. 24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.
II. The Universal Flood of Noah’s Time B. Ancient Civilizations Recorded the Flood Bible account dismissed as myth until other ancient records were discovered Over 500 ancient accounts: China, Babylon, Wales, Russia, India, America, Hawaii, Sumatra, Scandinavia, Peru, Polynesia, etc. Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic (origin 2,700 B.C.; copy 1200 B.C.), tablet 11 very similar to Bible account 22
Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic (origin 2,700 B.C.; copy 1200 B.C.), tablet 11 very similar to Bible account 23
24 BAYLONIAN GILGIMISH EPICACCOUNT IN GENESIS 6-9 Take the seed of all creatures aboard the ship 6:19 Bring all kinds of animals into the ark I boarded the ship and closed the door 7:1,16 God called Noah into the ark, shut the door I sent out a dove...[it] came back, no resting- place appeared for it 8:8 He sent out a dove; it found no resting-place & returned I sent out a raven…waters receding, it ate, it flew to and fro, it did not return 8:7 He sent out a raven, which went back & forth until the waters dried up I made a libation on the peak of the mountain. 8:20 Noah offered burnt offerings on the mountain http://www.nwcreation.net/noahlegends.html
25 5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
II. The Universal Flood of Noah’s Time D. Did Moses Plagiarize Ancient Records? Existence of ancient records proves Moses plagiarized them to write Gen. 6-9? Ancient records prove The Flood part of man’s universal memory: accounts corrupted Moses inspired of God & unique from others: rational story, God just (not temperamental) 26
28 14 And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair. 15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house. 16 And he entreated Abram well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and menservants, and maidservants, and she asses, and camels.
29 17 And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram's wife. 18 And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife? 19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister? so I might have taken her to me to wife: now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way. 20 And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.
III. Abraham’s Journey to Egypt C. Camels Not as Widely Used as Later But Present “Archaeological evidence showing early knowledge of the camel in Egypt included statuettes & figurines of camels, plaques bearing representations of camels, rock carvings & drawings, camel bones, a camel skull, and a camel hair rope. These objects, some twenty in number, range from the seventh century BC to the period before 3,000 BC” (J.P. Free, “Abraham’s Camels,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies [July, 1944]:187-193) 31
33 3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do. 4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD. 6 And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
34 7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient. 8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.
35 2 And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the LORD: and these are their journeys according to their goings out.
IV. Moses: Author of the Pentateuch B. Unbelievers Claimed Writing Not Yet Invented in Moses’ Time (1400’s B.C.) Earliest Egyptian hierglyphs 3400-3200 B.C. (Larkin Mitchell, “Earliest Egyptian Glyphs,” Archaeology Magazine, Mar./Apr. 1999) 36
Rosetta Stone discovered 1799 written in Greek, early Egyptian hieroglyphics, & current Egyptian: hieroglyphics revealed much about Egypt before Moses’ time 37
IV. Moses: Author of the Pentateuch B. Unbelievers Claimed Writing Not Yet Invented in Moses’ Time (1400’s B.C.) Earliest Sumerian cuneiform documents date 3100-3000 B.C., before Abraham! 38 2500’s BC
IV. Moses: Author of the Pentateuch B. Unbelievers Claimed Writing Not Yet Invented in Moses’ Time (1400’s B.C.) Babylon: Hammurabi Code 1772 B.C. 39 1792-1750 BC Clay Tablet Stone Stele
V. Edom, Moab, & the Hittites Real People A. Unbelievers Claimed Historical Errors in Bible Inserting Edom & Moab into ancient history before they existed (anachronism) Inventing the Hittites which never existed 40
Invitation 4. Archaeology sheds light on the Bible: Verify Bible history & geography: accuracy of details consistent with Bible claim to be God’s Word No fact of archaeology contradicts Bible record 47
Invitation 5. Archaeology sheds light on Bible accounts: The Garden of Eden: origin of civilizations The universal flood of Noah’s time Abraham’s journey to Egypt Moses: author of the Pentateuch Edom, Moab, & the Hittites real people 48
49 21 The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: