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Neolithic Settlement and Domestication: Catalysts for Infectious Disease April Tolley Professor Megan Tucker ANTH 4490 Bioarchaeology 4 December 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Neolithic Settlement and Domestication: Catalysts for Infectious Disease April Tolley Professor Megan Tucker ANTH 4490 Bioarchaeology 4 December 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neolithic Settlement and Domestication: Catalysts for Infectious Disease April Tolley Professor Megan Tucker ANTH 4490 Bioarchaeology 4 December 2012

2 Topic and Purpose I have compiled evidence based on molecular genetics of the bacteria that are the causative agents of infectious disease in order to demonstrate that Neolithic domestication of nonhuman animals was the catalyst for infectious disease epidemics among humans that are seen in Neolithic skeletons. The purpose of my research is to explore the rise of infectious disease in Neolithic humans and its correlation with permanent settlements and animal domestication of the Neolithic Revolution, as well as to examine diseases that possibly plagued Neolithic farmers.

3 Neolithic Revolution Began 10,000 years ago Rise of agriculture Plant domestication Animal domestication Arose independently in 9 major location across 4 continents

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5 agriculture-discussed-in-detail/

6 Animal Domestication Sheep: 10,500 years ago Wild Boar: 10,000 years ago Red Junglefowl: 10,000 years ago Goat: 10,000 years ago Feline: 9,500 years ago Cattle: 9,000 years ago Evolution of Domestic Junglefowl (Chicken): 8,000 years ago Wild Duck (Mallard): 7,000 years ago Bactrian Camel: 5,000-6,000 years ago Wild Horse: 5,500 years ago Wild Turkey: >4,000 years ago Wild Quail: 900 years ago

7 Neolithic…Revolutio n? Human population increase that has increased exponentially ever since Bioarchaeological record shows much more evidence of infectious disease ◦ Crowd Diseases: pathogens require large population in order to continually sustain themselves ◦ Zoonotic Diseases: contagious diseases transmitted from nonhuman animals to human animals

8 Disease Emergence and Transmission Smallpox: 3,000 years ago from camels Measles: 7,000-8,000 years ago from cattle or ruminants Influenza A: 6,000 years ago from ducks Plague: 1,500-20,000 years ago from rodent fleas Toxoplasmosis: 9,500 years ago from cats Malaria: 5,000-10,000 years ago from bird mosquitoes

9 DiseaseAnimalTime Sheep10,500 ya Malaria Wild Boar Red Junglefowl Goat 10,000 ya ToxoplasmosisFeline9,500 ya Cattle9,000 ya MeaslesDomestic Junglefowl (Chicken)8,000 ya Wild Duck (Mallard)7,000 ya Influenza A6,000 ya Wild Horse Bactrian Camel 5,500 ya Wild Turkey>4,000 ya SmallpoxWild Turkey3,000 ya Typhus1,600 ya Plague1,500 ya Wild Quail900 ya

10 Skeletal Evidence for Disease Most infections do not manifest on bone However, severe and prolonged infection can infect bone and leave lesions ◦ Periostitis ◦ Osteomyelitis

11 Periosteal Infection than-the-dentist-away/

12 Osteomyelitis RM:&imgrefurl=http://www.healthmedialab.com/html/infectious/tibia_ost.html&docid=ULmjFSeA3QAILM&imgurl=http://www.healthmedialab.c om/art/exhibits/tibia_ost.jpg&w=645&h=212&ei=RwG- UMSvOInk9ASYxYGQAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=580&vpy=153&dur=3874&hovh=129&hovw=392&tx=154&ty=72&sig= &sqi=2&page=4&tbnh=99&tbnw=270&ndsp=35&ved=1t:429,r:92,s:0,i:220

13 Skeletal Evidence for Disease Severe and prolonged illness can also indirectly leave marks on the skeleton ◦ Harris lines ◦ Enamel hypoplasia

14 Harris Lines graphics.rsna.org/content/29/7/2101.figures- only&docid=XzrW2vzFGuZuwM&imgurl=http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/29/7/2101/F6.small.gif&w=200&h=167&ei=HAK- UMnyEIX28gTQr4C4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=847&vpy=189&dur=196&hovh=133&hovw=160&tx=144&ty=69&sig= &page=1&tbnh=131&tbnw=150&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:115

15 Enamel Hypoplasia m=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo=d&biw=1 241&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=u faH9ee8WUmB9M:&imgrefurl=ht tp://www.proteinpower.com/drmik e/low-carb-diets/nutrition-and- health-in-agriculturalists-and- hunter- gatherers/&docid=4fOQVMrAu10 BOM&imgurl=http://www.protein power.com/drmike/wp- content/uploads/2009/04/enamel- hypoplasia2- blog.jpg&w=450&h=203&ei=4wK - UMquMIng8wT8mYGQBw&zoo m=1&iact=rc&dur=377&sig= &page=1&t bnh=127&tbnw=251&start=0&nd sp=20&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:86&tx =212&ty=73 es?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo =d&biw=1241&bih=584&tb m=isch&tbnid=gdFyF7lNPd 12VM:&imgrefurl=http://ww w.proteinpower.com/drmike /low-carb-diets/nutrition- and-health-in- agriculturalists-and-hunter- gatherers/&docid=4fOQVMr Au10BOM&imgurl=http://w ww.proteinpower.com/drmi ke/wp- content/uploads/2009/04/en amel-hypoplasia3- blog.jpg&w=474&h=199&ei =4wK- UMquMIng8wT8mYGQBw &zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=61 9&vpy=145&dur=1086&hov h=146&hovw=348&tx=108& ty=36&sig= &page=1&tbnh=1 27&tbnw=250&start=0&nds p=20&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:9 5

16 Conclusion These skeletal markings are attributed to nonspecific infection. I provided here a few of the many possible diseases that could have been the cause of these infections. “The most important infectious diseases of modern food-producing human populations also include diseases that could have emerged only within the past 11,000 years, following the rise of agriculture” (Dobson and Carper 1996), (Diamond 1997 in Wolfe et al. 2007) “If people had domesticated only plants, these changes would only have exposed them more intensively to disease organisms that they already harbored” (Ritvo 2004) Domestication of animals is a factor that increases disease risk (Armelagos et al. 2005)


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