Presentation on theme: "Flora of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia History of Botanical Studies in Saudi Arabia. Dinawari (895 A.D.) in his book "Kitab al Nabat", had given a comprehensive."— Presentation transcript:
Flora of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia History of Botanical Studies in Saudi Arabia. Dinawari (895 A.D.) in his book "Kitab al Nabat", had given a comprehensive knowledge of the agriculture and medicinal practices of the Bedouins. Idrisi (11153 A.D.), A.Al-Fida (1331 A.D.) have also written about Arabian plants. Muslim travelers and plant collectors visited the country over a period of 500 years or so and studied the vegetation of Arabian Peninsula, with special emphasis on the study of medicinal plants.
History of flora Serious interest in the flora of Arabia by Forsskal (1736-1763). During his stay in the southern parts of the Arabian Peninsula, he had collected a significant number of plants both from Yemen and Jizan Region. Some of these plants were described as new in the posthumous publication التاليه "Flora Aegyptiaca- Arabica" by Niebuhr (1775). 1825, Ehrenberg visited some of the Red Sea Islands, mainly to study microorganisms.
Cont. In 1833, J.R. Wellsted traveled along the southern coast of Arabia and collected some plants. E. Combes and M.O. Tamisier, towards the middle of the 19 th century, accompanied an Egyptian expedition team to the mountains of Asir. Musil-1909 and Philby-1917. E. Blatter (1919- 1936) compiled most of the major and minor collections of the previous visitors and published a detailed checklist of the wild plants of Arabia (Flora Arabica).
Cont. DeMarco & Dinelli, 1974), as part of the work of Italy consult Company for the survey of Agriculture Mandaville (Saudi Aramco during 1960's) were also remarkable. These collections were deposited in the British Herbaria Migahid, A.El-Sheikh, U. Bairele, P. Kong, H.M. Hassan, H.A. Abulfatih, etc. Most of these collections are deposited in the Herbarium (KSU) of Botany & Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh. As a result of these collections, the first edition of the Flora of Saudi Arabia by Migahid and Hammouda appeared in 1974 and the subsequent second and third editions by Migahid in 1978 and 1988-1990
Cont. S. Collenette (1972-1999) as she had contributed quite a lot to the present knowledge of our flora. Most of her collections are deposited in the Royal Botanic Gardens (E), Edinburgh and RBG, Kew (K), a set of which is also deposited at the National Herbarium (RIY) of the Ministry of Agriculture. S. Chaudhary and Jacob Thomas (Herbarium-RIY, Ministry of Agriculture), Ahmed Alfarhan and Jacob Thomas (Herbarium- KSU, King Saud University), T.Al-Turki (Herbarium -MUZ, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) Flora is a taxonomic literature used in identifying plants.
Flora Flora is defined as the plant life occurring in a particular region or time or habitat. Fauna is the corresponding term for animal life Flora and fauna and other forms of life such as fungi and other microorganisms are collectively referred to biota Depending on the scope and the area covered, floras are categorized into: Local flora: covers a limited geographic area ex. flora of Al Regional flora: it includes a larger geographical area ex. Flora of Saudi Arabia Continental flora: it covers the entire continent ex. Flora of Europe
Importance of studying wild life Man depend completely on wild plants before know cultivated species Wild plants are the main source of organic matter on the earth Wild plants are necessary for biological balance for all ecosystems They are the main source of gene bank for all species
Cont. Good mark and indicator for ecological changes and climate Used to compare between different regions have same conditions Good survey for different species of fodder, medicinal and industrial plants
Plant nomenclature The usage of the "Scientific Names Previously there were no scientific names for the plants. All languages have common or vernacular names for almost all the important plants of the countries concerned, but the vernacular names of a given plant naturally differ in various languages. This had been a problem for the botanists and for the laymen in general in the absence of a common basis for communication.
Cont. An attempt to reduce this perplexity الارتباك started during the Theophrastus period and later on by many scientists, their systems of naming plants could not handle the difficulties associated with naming a large number of plants by the use of names with only the generic terms. Scientific name starts as polynomial and descriptive. For example: the name of a species belong to the genus Caryophyllum that grows in rocks with grass-like leaves and umbellate corymbs was Caryophyllum, sextalis, folies, gramineus, umbellatus, corymbis. Their system also did not work because the names became very long and could not be used with ease.
Cont. Scientific names are Latin names used all over the world for scientific use. The name used by the local area known as vernacular name and different from place to another Use scientific name is important due to variability of the common names of the same plants from area to another
Binomial nomenclature In 1753, Linnaeus devised a new system, the "Binomial Nomenclature", which became universally accepted by botanists up to the present day. However, at the beginning, due to inadequate flow of information among botanists of the world, the same species was, in many cases, described under different names by different authors from different parts of the world. The result was the creation of about 830,000 names recorded by Index Kewensis for the period 1753-1965, where as the actual number of species referred to by these names was only about one third of this figure. This revealed the need for the formulation of an internationally accepted rules and regulations in order to stabilize the plant names. Thus an International Botanical Congress establish a 'Code' for botanical nomenclature(International code of botanical nomenclature ICBN )..
Cont. According to the Code of nomenclature, every plant is given a scientific name which has two Latin parts, i.e., 1. The generic name or genus name starting with a capital letter and, 2. The specific name or species' name starting with a small letter. Thus the scientific name of the common date palm tree is Phoenix dactylifera. The specific name dactylifera cannot be given to any other species belonging to the genus Phoenix but can be given to any other species belonging to another genus of the same family or another family. When a species is divided into two or more subspecies these will receive a third, subspecies, name as for example Ipomoea sinensis ssp. blepharosepala
Cont. Author citation (Name of the author that named and identified the plant) should be added at the end of scientific name. Authority is represented by the first letter or abbreviated letter of the person who named and identified the plant,for example: Vicia faba L. The letter L. refer to the famous Carlous Linnaeus The name of the author is not part from plant name. and always written in normal letters and not underline letters
Taxonomic units The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature gives broad outline for the use of the Code including typification, author citation, effective and valid publication etc. The first part or the Code deals with the ranks of taxa in plant classification. Every individual plant is treated as belonging to a number of categories with species as the basic unit. The Code also has certain directives to arrange these categories in their descending order and stipulates that the name of every taxonomic group should end in a specific manner as follow Division- phyta Spermatophyta Class- mae Angiosperms Subclass- neae Dicotyledoneae Superorder- idea Rosidae Order- ales Fabales Family- aceae Fabaceae Subfamily- oideae Papilionoideae Tribe- eae Vicieae Subtribe- ineae Vicineae
Plant collections and preservation 1-Botanic gardens It is defined as a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti صبار and succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shade houses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic دخيل plants.
Cont. Botanical garden activities: Availability of plants for scientific research Good source for gene pool for different species Display of plant diversity in form and use Display of plants of particular regions (including local) Plants sometimes grown within their particular families Plants grown for their seed Plants of economic significance Glasshouse plants of different climates Research facilities utilizing the living collections Studies in plant taxonomy Examples of different vegetation types Students education
Herbaria Until sixteenth century no systematic attempt was made by the botanists to preserve the plant specimens In about 1550 Caesalpino and others began to preserve plants and soon after that the importance of making herbarium was realised by many others. Today in every country we find that plants of immense value are preserved in various herbaria; probably the greatest herbarium is at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.
Cont. Herbarium can be defined as a collection of plants gathered by botanists, from far and wide area and preserved on sheets. The collections arranged and preserved in scientific names and families in systematic order Herbarium specimen should be identified and compared with well known and identified specimen.
Functions of herbaria Functions of herbaria are: 1-Serve as a source of information on the flora of any region 2-Serve as a permanent record allowing anyone to go back and check the identification, re-sample or repeat research 3-Serve as a source of research and teaching materials in systematic and ecological botany
Laws and ethics of collecting plants 1-Collecting from public park without an official permit is illegal 2-Rare and endangered plants never be collected 3-Always respect and care for the environment from which you are taking flora 4-Always take only the minimum amount of material required,never collect more than 25% of a single population
Precautions for using herbarium 1-Do not write any thing on herbarium sheets 2-Never keep heavy objects on specimens 3-Do not reshelf specimens in the herbarium cases 4-If you have loaned specimens from other institute, return them before the loan time is over 5-If you notice that specimens are being damaged inform the care office immediately
المعشبـةالمكـــان عدد العينات المجففة ( بالمليون ) الحدائق الملكية النباتية Roayl Botanic Gardens london 6.5 معهد كوماروف النباتى Komarov Botanical Institute, Russa 6.0 المتحف القومى للتاريخ الطبيعى Museum National d’Historie Naturelle france 6.0 المتحفظ البريطانى للتاريخ الطبيعى (Natural History) london 5.0 معهد وحدائق النباتات Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques geneva 5.0 جامعة ليون Universite de Lyon france 3.8 جامعة هارفر USA 3.8 المعهد النباتى الجامعى Instituto Botanico della Universita italy 3٫33٫3 جامعة مونبيليه Universite de Montpellier france 3٫33٫3
Field notes Without detailed accurate information a herbarium specimen is almost useless Field notes as: 1-Plant smell Aromatic, medicinal or spicy, non aromatic,……. 2-Pollination system By air, insect, man, ect. 3-Exact definition of site of collection, geographical site, altitude,…….ect.
Cont. 4-Species abundance: More frequent-Common-Few-Rare -Very rare 5-Type of soil ( clay, sandy, rocky ) 6-Type of site (habitat) ( desert, salt marches, forest, sand dunes, valley and lack)
Cont. 7-Plant habits: whether plants are Erect plants : woody and hard stem grow upward as trees Week plants : few wood unable plants to grow upright and mostly found in form of Creeping and running plants : week plants can’t grow upward against gravity Climbing Shrubs : plants grow in small patches and small trees Weeds :week plants as gramineae Trees: high plants and woody grow upright as acacia and phoenix (date Palme)
Cont. 8-Species stability 1-Native 2- Introduced (sp. Transferred by man from another continent or country) 3- Alien species( new to the area with unknown method, grow but have difficult to normal reproduction) 9-Information about the individual species collected at the site, particularly height, form, presence of rhizomes, presence and colour of sap in cut stems, flower colour. Flower colour often changes on drying
Steps for making herbarium specimen 1-Plant collecting 2-Plant pressing and preserving 3-Plant mounting 4-Plant labeling
Methods for preparing herbarium specimens 1- Cut or dug plant from soil 2-Press it as soon as possible before wilt 3-Put specimen on pressing sheet as newsprint sheet 4-Take care do not fold or overlap any part of plant. 5-Remove extra leaves or parts 6-Long specimen could be bent into V or N or M figure
Cont. 7-Exposed some leaves to upper surface and some others to lower surfaces 8-Flowers and inflorescences should be spread out for complete view. 9-Some flowers could be pressed in L.S position In the press the specimens in the paper should placed in between two driers, ventlator for every sp. 10-Sheet should have the collector name and its notice during collection
Cont. 11-All sp., are placed in the press in order way 12-Plants are arranged in the press and tightly bound with ropes or straps to prevent wrinkling of specimens 13The press is now ready for drying DRYING OF SPECIMENS 1-Specimens should dried as rapidly as possible to get best results 2-Press is placed in sun for 24 hrs
Cont. 3- press is opened and specimens are placed in new dry newspapers. Press again bound and tightly The wet blotters and newspapers are redried for reuse with another time and specimen Follow same trend for three – four days untill specimens completely dried The press become loose when the plants are completely dried.
Artificial heating may also be used Specimens are never dried in oven In humid regions and rainy seasons plants are dried in big woody box contain 100 sp at least and have about five light bulbs of 60W to produce heat for 8-12 hrs. Specimens poisoning : Drying specimens are poisoning before mounting by 1- Dipping in saturated solution of mercuric chloride and ethyl alcohol 2- Laurel pentata chlorophenate solution is recommended as the former is virulent poison.
Mounting Mean that attach dried specimens to mounting paper or herbarium sheet. The standard size of herbarium sheet is 28.75 x 41.25 cm Heavy and hard card heats are used as herb., sheet. Good quality glue or paste used for affixing specimen to herbarium sheet Animal glue sometimes used in south Asia In Europe glue withhold 128 or gummed paper are used for addition glue to fix material Loose parts as fruits seeds are placed in paper packets with the specimen Avoid use cellulose tapes.
Labeling Attaching Label Label is affixed in the lower right corner of the sheet The data that accompanies a herbarium specimen is just as important as the specimen itself. Even a very good quality specimen is of no use to a Herbarium unless it has a written label with the information detailed below. Collector’s name: the name(s) of the person/people who collected the specimen, Date of collection Botanical name: If you are unsure of the identity it is still helpful to suggest a name, or at least a genus. Locality: A written description of the precise collection locality is necessary, AS WELL AS a latitude and longitude reading. A GPS location alone is not sufficient. The locality description should be detailed enough to enable any person to revisit the approximate place of collection.
Annotation slips They are a small pieces of papers used to indicate confirmation of the specimens nomenclature They usually indicate the species new name,date of identification and signature of the person who did the identification
Spirit Collections Spirit collections may also be called wet, pickled or alcohol collections.. Spirit collections are predominantly used for preserving succulent or delicate structures (eg. petalous flowers or fleshy fruits) that shrivel upon drying, or when the structure or shape of the specimens is required (e.g. botanical illustration, microscopy, etc). Until recently, specimens were pickled in F.A.A. (Formaldehyde + Acetic Acid + Alcohol). FAA is no longer used however, as formalin has been found to be extremely toxic. Today solutions such 70% ethanol (70% ethanol + 30% water) are preferred for wet collections.
Climate of Saudi Arabia There are three climatic zones in the kingdom (1) Desert almost everywhere (2) Steppe along the western highlands, forming a strip less than 100 miles (160 km) wide in the north but becoming almost 300 miles (480 km) wide at the latitude of Mecca (3) A small area of humid and mild temperature conditions, with long summers, in the highlands just north of Yemen.
Cont. . In March and April, some precipitation, normally torrential غزير, falls in Mecca and Asir Winters, from December to February, are cool, and frost and snow may occur in the southern highlands. Average temperatures for the coolest months, December through February, are 74 °F (23 °C) at Jiddah, 58 °F (14 °C) at Riyadh, and 63 °F (17 °C) at Al-Dammām. Summers, from June to August, are hot, with daytime temperatures in the shade exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) in almost all of the country. Temperatures in the desert frequently rise as high as 130 °F (55 °C) in the summer. Humidity is low, except along the coasts, where it can be high and very oppressive خانقه او خطره.
Cont. The level of precipitation is also low throughout the country, amounting to about 2.5 inches (65 mm) at Jiddah, a little more than 3 inches (75 mm) at Riyadh, and 3 inches at Al-Dammām. In the highlands of Asir, more than 19 inches (480 mm) a year may be received, falling mostly between May and October when the summer monsoon winds prevail تهب الرياح الموسميه. In the Rubʿ al-Khali, a decade may pass with no precipitation at all.
altitude Altitude of the plains in the Central Region is about 500-800 m and the relative height of the mountains and escarpments (Jabal Shammar, Jabal Tuwayq) varies from 300-600 m. The Eastern Region is broadly divided into 1). an open plain adjacent to the Dahna sands, 2). the Northern plains which is bordering with Kuwait, 3). the coastal lowlands and 4).the Rub' al-Khali, the largest, continuous sand body in the world.
Overview on Topography of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a quadrilateral land mass, occupying a major part of the Arabian Peninsula. It covers an area of about 2,250,000 sq. km. Landscape is composed of a variety of habitats such as mountains, Valleys (Wadis), sandy and rocky deserts, meadows (Raudhahs), salt pans Geographical sense, Saudi Arabia can be divided into two distinct zones: 1- The rain fed highlands of the western and southwestern regions (Sarawat Mountains) 2- The vast arid الجافة الواسعه and extra arid lands of the interior (Najd).
Cont. The Najd area, which occupies the lion share of Saudi Arabia, is located on the eastern side of the entire Sarawat Mountains and adjoining areas Rub al-Khali in the south, both of which are connected by an arch shaped Dahna sands. The Central Region in general, is characterized by patchy, gravel مفروشه بالحصى deserts
Cont. The mountains of southwestern region form a continuous chain of escarpments خندق, extending from Taif to Yemen border. The peaks reach elevations of over 2000 m in the vicinity قرب of Taif and extreme south and over 3000 m in the Abha area. mountains on the western side, especially the Asir Mountains are characterized by cool climate, high precipitation and high humidity The mountains of Jizan Region, especially the Fayfa Mountains reach a height of about 2000 m.
Cont. Tihama lies between the Red Sea and the Escarpments المنخفض او اخندق. It is narrow in the northwestern side and wider in the southwestern side. Approximately 30% of the land of Saudi Arabia is covered by three major sand bodies The Great Nafud, situated in the northern part of the country is a 60,000 sq km wide The Rub al-Khali or the Empty Quarter, with its extreme climate, occupies in 500,000 sq km area and is located in the southern and southeastern part of the country
Characteristic of Saudi wild flora Much of Saudi Arabia’s vegetation belongs to the North African– Indian desert region. Plants are xerophytes (require little water) and are mostly small herbs and shrubs that are useful as forage. Few small areas of grass and trees in southern Asir. The flora of Saudi Arabia has about 2281 species in 853 genera; of which 9 species are Gymnosperms and 27 species are Pteridophytes. of 131 families have been reported from all over Saudi Arabia; among these 33 families are represented by a single species each The regions along the northwestern and southwestern regions, however, are densely vegetated and contain the highest number of species. Approximately 70% of the country's floristic elements are reported from these areas. Saudi Arabia contains 97 (4.25%) trees, 564 (24.73%) shrubs and about 1620 (71.02%) herbs.
Cont. Saudi Arabia, 418 species belonging to 27 families are monocots. It constitutes around 20 % of the vascular plants of Saudi Arabia. Of which, 67 species are endangered and 16 are endemic to the region. Gramineae with 261 species is the largest monocot family in Saudi Arabia, followed by Cyperaceae with 40 species. Among the genera, Cyperus is the largest with 21 species.
Types of habitats and their vegetation in Saudi arabia 1-Marine habitat Marine life is concerned with the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the ocean and seas. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land. A- herbs: plant species able to grow in sea water recording 7 genus in red sea and gulf water.These species used as fish food and maintain the sea shore B- Avicenia marina نبات الشوري and Rhizophora mucronata which found in gulf water only These habitat used for growing young fishes on red sea shore This area called Mangrove, it face lot of changes due to camel razing and human civilization. C- halophytes : this type of habitat lies on red sea and Arab gulf area Lot of species are grow in this area that only can tolerate high salinity in the soil as Arthrocnemon glacum نبات الخريص and Halopeplis perfoliata نبات المليح
Cont. Based on salinity concentration a gradual distribution of species on sucessive system on the shore as far from the water, where some species can grow in less saline conc. As Suaeda sp نبات السويد and Salsola baryosom نبات الخريط, and Hammada elegans نبات الرمث. 2- Terrestrial habitats A- islands 1- Teran and snafer islands in akaba gulf 2- Farasan islands in red sea These islands are very important as it is a natural labs for study sp. Relatioships B- wet land area as lakes, bonds, wetthead and water tanks as well as sewage water which give a model of wet area and growth of semi water growth species as Phragmites sp. الغاب And Typha sp البردي
Cont. C- Valies (Wadies) An elongate depression of the earth's surface usually between ranges of hills or mountains. b : an area drained by a river and its tributaries. D- Mountains a large natural elevation of the earth's surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level. E- Forest mountain regions Found in west mountains at Sarawat mountains chain where lot of Juniperus procera العرعر and Dodonaea viscosa نبات الشث, Olea chrysophylla الزيتون البري and Pistacia falcata اللوز البري This type of habitat is useful as soil holder where it improve characters of the soil to be more stable by roots. High trees also give better humid atmosphere to the forest all the year.
Cont. F- Al harat Widespread area of volcanoes rocks represent about 9 million hektar in Saudi Arabia as khibar and alraha harah As these area are isolated and mostly away from civilization many of wild plants and animals are represent in it G- Sandy plains represent only few of Acacia sp الطلح and Ziziphus spins السدر and som herbs H- Deserts : cover about 780,000 km of Arab peninsula.
Plant geographical regions in saudi arabia 1- Western costal plain السهل الساحلى الغربى Extend from Sarawat mountains to Yamin south to Akaba gulf in the north Climate is high humid and warm humid at summer with few rain fall Soil somehow fertile allow growth of lot of species Types of sp. Found in this area:
الاسم المحليالاسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة الطلح Acacia spp القرنية Leguminosae\Fabaceae السلم A. ehernbrgiana Hayna القرنية Leguminosae\Fabaceae الحرمل Rhazya stricta Decne الدفلية Apocynaceae السرح Maerua crassifolia Forssk اللصفية Capparaceae\Capparidaceae السدر Ziziphus spina-christi العنابية Rhamnaceae الاسم المحليالسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة العوسج Lycium shawii Roem et She الباذنجانية Solanaceae المرخ Lepadenia pyrotechnica العشارية Asclepiadaceae الرطريط Zygophyllum album L. الرطراطية Zygophyllaceae السنة مكي Casia senna L. or C.italica (Mill) Lam. ex Steud القرنية ( البقمية ) Leguminosae \ Fabaceae ( Caesalpionodae)
سلسلة جبال الحجاز والسروات 2-Higaz and Sarawat mountains This area lies parallel to red sea and extend to yamen to akaba at the north Altitude of this mountains range from 3000 -2000m North and south regions have lot of rains especially at summer season Temperature range from 10 to 22 degree This area have lot of valies as wadi Fatma near Mekka, wadi kulais north jedda and wadi Rabegh and wadi al Remah near Madinah as well as Besha and wadi Al Dwaser Some types of species common in this area:
3- Western highland الهضاب الغربية This area lies parallel to higaz mountain with some dunes and valies from nagran in the south to tabuik in the north Altitude range from 1000-1400m Few rains and few species mostly desert ones Some species common in this area are:
الهضبة الوسطى 4-Middle highland Extend from Al Dahnna in east to Al Nofood north to the rob al khali in the south Altitude range from 500 – 900m Rainy in winter season Have lot of highlands, vallies as wadi al remmah and wide plains. Some species recorded in this region are:
أمثلة على الأنواع النباتية التي تعيش في المنطقة بشكل عام :- الاسم المحليالاسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة العرفج Dipterygium glaucum اللصفية Capparaceae\ Capparidaceae الثمام Panicm turgidum Forssk النجيلية Poaceae \ Gramineae الربلة Plantago SPP. الحملية Plantaginacea e الحميض Rumex vesicarius L. الحماضية Polygonaceae الاسم المحليالاسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة النصي Stipagrostis hirtigluma النجيلية Poaceae \ Gramineae الشيح Artemisia spp. A. judaica L. المركبة Asteraceae \ Compositeae الغزالة Euphobia kahirensis اللبنية Euphobiaceae الخزاما Monsonia nivea الجارونية Geranaceae في شرق الهضبة توجد أنواع نباتية مختلفة منها :-
المنطقة الشرقية 5- Eastern region Start from Al Dahnna in the west to Arab gulf in the east, also from Saudi kauwait and Iraq borders to Rub Al khali at south Area shows lot of sand dunes, plains and some salt marches near the gulf Species common in this area are:
أمثلة على الأنواع النباتية التي تعيش في المنطقة بشكل عام :- الاسم المحليالاسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة الضمران Salsola vermiculata L. الرمرامية Chenopodiaceae الثمام Panicm turgidum Forssk النجيلية Poaceae \ Gramineae العوسج Lycium shawii Roem الباذنجانية Solanaceae المرخ Lepadenia pyrotechnica العشارية Asclepiadaceae الرطريط Zygophyllum album L. الرطراطية Zygophyllaceae الأرضي Calligonum comosum الحمضية Polygonaceae الاسم المحليالاسم العلميالفصيلةالعائلة الربل Pulicaria undulata L.Kostel المركبة Asteraceae \ Compositeae العرفج Dipterygium glaucum اللصفية Capparaceae\Capparida ceae
المناطق الشمالية 6- Northern region Lies south Jordon and Iraq border to wadi al sarhan north Tabuk and Ababa in the west Include lot of perennial species Also show cold weather and rainy winter season and hot summer herbs are few and varied species, and seasonal depends on rains Shrubs and trees are rare Species most dominant is Stipagrostis scoparia ( family Poaceae – Gramineae)
7- Al rob al khali الربع الخالى Desert land widely distributed from Yamin and Oman south of 700km in the kingdom to 1300km east in the kingdom No rain or very few every two years in form of storms sometimes pass 10 years without any rain or winter season No shrubs or trees represented Species found in this area very few mostly Panicum turgidum Foressk. ( poaceae) and calligomum comosum (polygonaceae)
vegetation categoties in Saudi Arabia Wild plants are a vital component in all terrestrial ecosystems. All living things on earth are totally or partially dependent on plants and plant products in one way or the other. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a varied heritage of plant diversity, encompassing a wide spectrum of habitats ranging from mountains, sand seas, rocky deserts, meadows, salt pans, etc. and a variety of climatic regimes, ranging from Mediterranean, semiarid and arid climates.
Cont. Vegetation of Saudi Arabia is divided into five broad categories. 1. Vegetation of the coastal plains and Sabkhas 2. Deserts and scarcely vegetated areas 3. Dwarf shrub-lands 4. Woodlands and xeromorphic shrub-lands of high altitude areas 5. Wadi Communities.
Cont. 1. Coastal zones and sabkhas a. Coastal zones and sabkha vegetation Mangroves, halophytes, open xeromorphic and drought-deciduous thorn woodlands dominate the coastal zones of Arabian Gulf and Red Sea. Among these, mangrove stands, represented by Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata. Depending on the soil texture whether it is saline, silt, sand or alkaline, several populations and plant associations have been found in the southwestern and northwestern coastal lands (Tihama). Major populations recorded from Tihama are Limonium axillare, Suaeda monoica and Zygophyllum coccineum. Among the communities present in these zones are: Mangrove community (Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata), Panicum-Pennisetum community (Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Lasiurus scindicus, Acacia tortilis), and Suaeda monoica-Tamarix community (Suaeda monoica, S. vermiculata, Tamarix nilotica).
b. Open xeromorphic grasslands. Dominant species: Acacia tortilis, Panicum turgidum, Lycium shawii,Calligonum comosum,, Indigofera spinosa, Tephrosia apollinea, Blepharis ciliaris.
2. Deserts and sparsely vegetated areas a. Open xeromorphic dwarf-shrublands of rock and gravel deserts. Dominant species: Acacia tortilis, Haloxylon salicornicum, Astragalus spinosus, b. Scarcely vegetated sand dunes and sand covered gavel plains. Dominant species: Acacia spp. and Calligonum comosum. 3. Dwarf shrub lands a. Open xeromorphic dwarf shrublands Dominant species: Haloxylon salicornicum, Rhanterium epapposum, Acacia gerrardii, Acacia ehrenbergiana, Ziziphus nummularia, Lycium shawii.
4. Montane woodlands Dominant species of northern parts of southern Hijaz Mountains (Jeddah-Taif): Acacia asak, Delonix elata,Euphorbia cuneata, Maytenus senegalensis Dominant species of the middle parts of southern Hijaz Mountains (Asir): Acacia ehrenbergiana, Euphorbia fractiflexa, Indigofera spinosa, Panicum turgidum, Blepharis ciliaris, Dominant species of the southern parts of southern Hijaz Mountains :Acacia tortilis, Adenium obesum, Aloe officinalis, Combretum molle, Delonix elata, Dominant species of northern mountains: Juniperus phoenicea, Artemisia seiberi, Asperagus aphyllus, Dominant species of Taif Mountains: Juniperus procera, Euryops arabicus, Rhus retinorrhea Dominant species of Jabal Soodah: Acacia gerrardii, A. seyal, Erica arborea, Juniperus procera, Lavandula dentata, Rumex nervosus, Rosa abyssinica, Otostegia fruticosa, Psiadia punctulata, Dominant species of the mountains of Jizan mountains: Juniperus procera, Acacia gerrardii, Hypericum revolutum, Cordia abyssinica, Rosa abyssinica
5. Wadi communities Several plant communities have been identified along the banks and wadi bottom, especially along the wadis of Najd and Tihama areas. a. Dominant species of the Central region: Acacia gerrardii, A. raddiana, A. ehrenbergiana, A. tortilis, Rhazya stricta, Lycium shawii, etc. b. Dominant species of Tihama region: Acacia ehrenbergiana, Ziziphus spina-christi, Salvadora persica, Tamarix nilotica, Hyphaene thebaica, Abutilon pannosum, Panicum turgidum,
Vegetation and habitat of some different regions in Saudi Arabia - Central region of Saudi Arabia The central region is characterized by hillocks, wadis (valleys), meadows, sabkhas(salt pans), gravel,rocky and sandy deserts Vegetation of rocky deserts are generally sparse due to the impermeability of water and its impenetrable surface to plant roots.Plant growth and seed deposits are largely confined to the periphery of the gravel areas, where fine soil accumulate over a considerable period and generate a habitat conducive for certain shallow rooted plants. Huge areas of sand dunes are present in the northern, eastern and southern borders. Plateau and other deserts are also less favourable for plant growth due to exposure to wind and other evaporating factors. Vegetation in such areas are restricted to notches and crevices. An array of hillocks is the main landmark of this region.
Cont. Vegetation is virtually nil on these hillocks except for a few grass species and some perennial plants. Wadis on the other hand, which receive additional supply of runoff water along with fine soil from the elevated places, are the real seat of the main vegetation Tree species are rare in the central region. Common plants of some of the major habitats of the central region are as follows: Acacia gerrardii -Amaranthus graecizans- Asphodelus tenuifolius -Arnebia hispidissima-Acacia tottilis-Heliotropium bacciferum-Bassia muricata
Vegetation of Eastern of Saudi Arabia Floristically, the entire region is divided into 8 sub regions. They are Northern plains, the central coastal lowlands, the south coastal lowlands, northern summan, southern summan, northern Dahna, southern Dahna and the Rub al-Khali Climate of the Eastern Saudi Arabia is generally arid. Vegetation in these areas contains such plants as Anabasis lachnanth, Haloxylon salicornicum Along with this species, annuals such as Plantago boissieri, Lotus halophilus, etc. In the Rub Al-Khali desert, the dominant vegetation is represented by Calligonum crinitum, Tribulus pentandrus ssp. arabicus, Limeum arabicum and Cyperus conglomerates.
Vegetation of Northern region Vegetation of Tabuk Region In general terms, the vegetation of Tabuk Region is composed mainly of Chenopods, especially the Salsola tetrandra-Salsola cyclophylla associations. However, a few other xerophytic vegetations can also be seen in some localized centers. These localized vegetation units are dominated by Haloxylon salicornicum, Retama reaetam, Pulicaria undulata, Acacia tortilis, and Lycium shawii. Apart from the xeromorphic vegetation, halophytic vegetation is also dominant in certain salt marsh ecosystems. These include: Pharagmites australis, Tamarix nilotica, and Zygophyllum coccineum. A significant number of annual species are also found in the Tabuk region, most of which are belonging to the families, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Paplionaceae. Common annual species include: Silene villosa, Plantago ciliata, Astragalus schimperi, A. annularis, Trigonella stellata, Plantago amplexicaulis, etc.
Vegetation of Taif region The rugged topographical features of the surveyed area contain a variety of land forms, ranging from high plateau, escarpments, rocky ridges, valleys, etc. Each of these habitats has its particular soil textures, water resources, microclimate as well as elevation above sea level. Following list shows the important trees shrubs and perennial herbs of the study area Trees. Juniperus procera, Acacia gerrardii, Acacia origena,, Ziziphus spina-christi,. Shrub Dodonaea angustifolia, rumex nervosus, Withania somnifera, Opuntia ficus- indica, Ochradenus baccatus Perennial herbs Euryops arabicus, Lavandula dentata, Pulicaria undulata, Teucrium polium, Ruta chalepensis, Echinops erinaceus, etc.
Vegetation of Asir mountains The vegetation of Asir is very interesting and consists of a variety of species. The mountains which have an altitude of about 3100 m have three or more layers of vegetation. The top layer consists of Juniperus procera, Nuxia congesta, Tarchonanthus camphoratus, Maesa lanceolata, Teclea nobilis, etc. The second layer consists of small trees or tall shrubs such as Olea europaea, Buddleja polystachya, Grewia spp. Dodonaea angustifolia, Debregeasia saenab, Carissa edulis, Ehretia obtusifolia, Canthium spp., etc. The third and fourth layer is formed of a number of dwarf shrubs and herbs.
Vegetation of Farassan islands These islands play an important role for migratory birds and for a number of endemic races of snakes. the first and foremost important factor that makes Farasan group of islands unique is the presence of two important Mangrove populations, Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata in addition to the following plants as: Ipomoea hochstetteri, Euphorbia collenetteae,Limonium cylindrifolium
Types OF Deserts And Their Ecosystem A desert is a type of region or terrain on, Earth's surface which receives very less rainfall compared to other regions. Deserts are extremely dry regions with very little water around. Deserts are one of the major ecosystems in the world and constitute one fifth of the earth’s land. Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways, generally combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls, temperature, and humidity, and sometimes additional factors.temperature
Classification of deserts based on temperature Hot deserts The mean temperature ranges from 40 °C) to 7 °C or even lower.The rainfall is very low, especially in winter, and may come in the form of an occasional downpour. The soil consists of coarse gravel or sand, and is shallow and well drained. Plants here tend to have deep taproots and may only open their stomata at night.taprootsstomata Cold deserts It can be covered with snow or ice for part of the year; frozen water unavailable to plant life.The temperature seldom rises above 20 °C in summer and often falls below −30 °C in winter. The soil in cold deserts is often fine silt, saline and heavy. Plants growing there tend to be widely separated, deciduous, low and spinysnowicesalinedeciduous
Classification of deserts based on amount of precepitation In 1961, Peveril Meigs divided according to the amount of precipitation they received into three categories: Extremely arid lands, arid and Semiarid landsPeveril Meigs The soil in these deserts varies from sandy, to coarse, to shallow and gravely. Around the mountain slopes the soil is shallow and rocky; around lower slopes it is coarse while around the bottom land it’s fine and sandy. The soil has a very low salt concentration.mountain Like the hot and dry deserts, the plants here are highly specialized in conserving water. They have reduced leaved known as spines and thick cuticles.
Deserts in Saudi Arabia Deserts are classified by their geographical location and dominant weather pattern as trade wind, midlatitude, rain shadow, coastal, monsoon, or polar deserts. The Saudi desert with its golden sands that constitutes four-fifths of the Kingdom’s geographical area that prompted the Saudis to explore the worlds of this natural environment surrounding them from all directions. -Although the desert of Saudi Arabia is more or less continuous, extending from North to South, the Nafud in the north and the Rub-al-Khali in the south are the largest among all -Other sand bodies, such as the crescent-shaped Dahna situated in the Najd Area and the Al-Jafurah on the eastern region are relatively smaller in size. -.
Rub-al-Khali The region is almost empty of human beings due to the extreme heat, and scarce rain, vegetation, and water. Moreover, its natural features of high sand dunes made it difficult for human life to survive and move around. It is also known as the Great Sandy Desert. Rub-al-Khali or the 'Empty Quarter' is believed to be the largest continuous sand body in the world. Rainfall is almost nil in this desert. Vegetation composed of diffuse shrubs. Annual plants are virtually nil in this desert. A few endemic plants such as Calligonum crinitum spp. arabicum, Tribulus arabicus, Cornulaca arabica, is recorded - The Great Nafud is composed of transverse sand dunes. -The sand of Nafud is reddish in colour due to iron oxide coating while the sands of other deserts are somewhat yellowish in colour.
Cont. The great Nafud is composed of transverse sand dunes.The sands of great Nafud is reddish in colour due toiron oxide coating while the sandsof other deserts are yellowish. As the rains in the deserts are intermittent and erratic, every drop of water that fall on the sand is precious for the existence of plants and animals. Plants have several adaptations that help them to survive in the desert, such as ability to collect and store water, features that help reduce water loss. Desert plants usually have small leaves or leaf-like appendages, thick, waxy cuticle on the surface of stems and leaves, sunken stomata, sand covered strong-roots that help to penetrate deep into the soil in search of water and also help the plant to hold firmly on the ground.
Halophytes of Saudi Arabia Present estimates show that Saudi Arabia contains over 100 halophytic species distributed in 33 families or so. Among the halophytes recorded from Saudi Arabia, the highest number is from Chenopodiaceae As water evaporates from the shallow depressions, it leaves a crest of salt and thereby forming a substratum for the growth of several salt loving plants (Halophytes). The salinity of the salty lands varies from region to region and from season to season, depending upon the climate in which these sites are located. The salinity and water level decide the vegetation type of the area. Two types of salt marshes (Sabkhas) are present in Saudi Arabia, namely 1- Inland 2 -Littoral (Coastal)..
Inland salty areas, which are usually far away from the seashore, are small to large depressions and are characterized by shallow underground water table. In certain areas, such as Al-Hassa Oasis, Littoral or coastal sabkhas can be seen throughout the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea coast. Coastal salty areas are characterized by fine clay soil mixed with humus. Coastal lands are sparsely vegetated, mostly dominated by mangroves and some succulent plants of the families such as Chenopodiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, followed by Poaceae, Zygophyllaceae and Tamaricaceae, etc.
Cont. Succulent species or halophytes in general are dominating in and around salt pans.Species such as Zygophyllum coccineum, Aeluropus lagopoides, Cressa cretica, Limonium axillare, Zygophyllum simplex are common in such areas while Avicennia marina and large colonies of sea grasses are dominating in the shallow waters of Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. Succulent specieshalophytes Saudi Arabia does not have any rivers or any perennial streams. However, seasonal streams or ponds, mostly seen in the southwestern region contain a few species.
Mangrove vegetation Common mangrove are Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae)and Avicennia officinalis (Verbenaceae) The ecological conditions which are essentials for the development of mangrove vegetation are: Shallow water with thick mud -Waterlogged saline soil or sandy or loose soil or heavy clay containing large amount of organic matter -High rainfall and high humidity and cloudy weather
Aquatic flora of Saudi Arabia Aquatic plants are important part of fresh water, brackish or marine aquatic ecosystems. They help removing the nutrients and other pollutants from streams and provide a habitat for fish, shrimp and other aquatic species and provide forage for waterfowl. Hydrophytes — are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments. Saudi Arabian aquatic plants are growing in shallow water bodies. They are characterized by thin cuticle, permanently opened stomatas with inactive guard cells, specialized flat leaves with well defined aerenchyma and feathery roots for oxygen intake. In Saudi Arabia, the aquatic flora is not strikingly rich. The aquatic flora in Saudi Arabia contains more than 40 aquatic or semi aquatic species, of which Potamogetonaceae has the maximum number of species. Some of the species belonging to the flora of Saudi Arabia are cosmopolitan, such as Lemna spp., Examples for fresh water aquatic plants are Ceratophyllum demersum- Ceratophyllum submersum
hydrophytes العائلةالاسم الدارجالاسم العلمي (Potamogetonaceae)لسان البحرPotamogeton nodosus (Verbenacea)الشورى ( نصف مغمورة)Avicennia marina
Parasitic plants -The flora of Saudi Arabia contains about 32 species of total or partial parasites that are native or introduced to the kingdom -They vary from obligate,faculative, holoparasites and hemiparasites -Families that having parasite species are: Cuscutaceae-Orobanchaceae-Loranthaceae, the majority of parasitic species are found in southern region
Parasitic species العائلةالاسم الدارجالاسم العلمي (Orobanchaceae) الهالوك (يتطفل على جذور نبات الملوخية) Orbanche sp. (Cuscutaceae)الحامولCuscuta sp.
Endemic plants Endemic species are defined as species only found in one specific geographical are Isolated geographical areas, such as islan Lakes or mountain ranges, often have many endemic species
Endemic plants of Saudi Arabia Species present in Saudi Arabia only Allium asirense B. Mathew Alliaceae Aloe armatissima Lavr. & Colle. Aloaceae Aloe porphyrostachys Lar. & Colle. Aloaceae Aloe shadensis Lavr. & Colle. Aloaceae Aloe sheilae Lavr. Aloeaceae Anthemis dicksoniae A. Ghafoor Asteraceae Anthemis scrobicularis Hedge & Kit Tan Asteraceae Anthemis sheilae A. Ghafoor Asteraceae Astragalus collenettae I.C. Hedge & D. Podl. Papilionaceae Convolvulus asirensis Kotschy Convolvulaceae Convolvulus cephalopodus ssp. abhansis Alfarhan Convolvulaceae Delphinium sheilae Kit Tan Ranunculaceae Echinops abuzinadianus S. Chaudhary Asteraceae
Status categories of species Vulnerable :Likely to become endangered in the future if factor that is posing threat persist The endangered plant is defined as species or taxa facing extinction Rare plant is defined as taxa with small population,that are not at present endangered but at risk. the percentage of rare and endangered species is very high in Saudi Arabia. About 600 species are considered as rare or endangered. The loss of flora in Saudi Arabia is probably higher than any other country in the Middle East. the dramatic fluctuations in climate which resulted in periodic drought have made it much more difficult for plants to survive in t heir habitats.
Cont. The dramatic fluctuations in climate which resulted in periodic drought have made it much more difficult for plants to survive in their habitats RARE SPECIES has any one or more of the following characteristics: Grows naturally in a narrow geographical area, Occupies only one or few specialize habitats, Forms only small population(s)
list of Endangered species in Saudi Arabia Alliaceae Allium asirense Aloaceae Aloe x abhaica Aloe armatissima Aloe brunneodentata Aloe cephalophora Aloe edentata Aloe fleurentiniorum Aloe parvicapsula Aloe parvicoma Aloe porpyrostachys Aloe pseudorubroviolacea Aloe x qaharensis Aloe shadensis Aloe sheilae Aloe vulcanica Aloe yemenica Convolvulaceae Astripomoea malvacea Convolvulus excelsus Convolvulus infantispinosus Xenostegia triden tata Dracaenaceae Dracaena ombet Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia agowensis Euphorbia ammak Euphorbia sp. aff. ammak
Hypericum collenettae N. Robson Hypericaceae Indigogera brachyphylla Al-Turki Fabaceae Salsola Arabica Botsch. Chenopodiaceae Teucrium hijazicum I.C. Hedge & R. A. King Lamiaceae Nepeta sheilae I.C. Hedge & King Lamiaceae Phagnalon stenolepis var. abdulazizianum S. Chaudhary Asteraceae Pycnocycla sheilae S. Chaudhary Apiaceae Reseda pentagyna Abdallah & A.G. Mill. Resedaceae Rhytidocaulon sheilae D.V. Field Asclepiadaceae Rubus asirensis D.F. Chamb. Rosaceae Silene asirensis D.F. Chamb. & Colle. Caryophyllaceae Silene corylina D.F. Chamb. & Colle. Caryophyllaceae Teucrium popoviii R.A. King Lamiaceae Trisetaria chaudharyana H. Scholz Poaceae
Preserving Endangered Species 1-Preservation approaches: – 2-Habitat restoration – 3-Removal of introduced species – 4-Cleanup and rehabilitation
Extinct منقرض plants Extinct i.e plant no longer existing or living When a habitat of a rare and/or endemic species are damaged and/or fragmented by various human activities, the distribution ranges of population sizes of them will be reduced and the species would be vulnerable to extinction with a rate more than any other species.
Factors responsible for extinction: Habitat loss – Habitat fragmentation – Overexploitation (hunting, fishing..) – Introduced species – Disruption of ecological interactions – Pollution – Loss of genetic variability – Plant diseases – Over grazing
Current status of plant conservation in Saudi Arabia One of the important steps towards the conservation of our wild plants is to expand the floristic knowledge. Among the species so far recorded from Saudi Arabia, approximately 30% of species are rare or seen in restricted localities and about 18 species are believed locally extinct.
Disturbances in the environment can be natural or man made. Natural disturbances, may be events which cause abrupt structural change in plant communities, is an integral part of the pattern in most parts of the Kingdom's landscapes. Desert encroachment الامتداد الصحراوي او التعدى and drought are the two major natural disturbances operating in the rangelands.
Saudi Arabia is one of the most vulnerable countries in this region. There are many reasons about these vulnerabilities, and these are explained in the climate change 2001, at the Third Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The report established how human activity (burning fossil fuels and changes in land use) is modifying the global climate with temperatures rises projected for the next 100 years that could affect human welfare and the environment. The climatic record of this region for the past five years showed that there were fluctuations in the temperature and a decrease in rainfall over large portions of Saudi Arabia. In the 21 st century, this warning trend, and changes in precipitation patterns are expected to continue along with a rise in sea level and increased frequency of extreme weather events
Cont. Saudi Arabia's biodiversity is under threat from multiple stresses. Climate change is one of the several pressures. Although climate changes will have consequences all over Saudi Arabia, not all regions will be affected equally, nor all regions equally vulnerable to those impacts. Saudi Arabia, being located in the arid part of the world is expected to experience faster warming due to climate change than countries located in the tropical or temperate regions.
Strategic goals for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity Steps taken for conservation the remaining species 1-Establishment of national parks –protected area 2-Establishment of gene banks 3-Collection and preservation of germplasm 4-Legisation for conservation 5-Control an over exploitation
Protected area in Saudi Arabia At present, Saudi Arabia has 15 protected areas which cover approximately 5% of the land area and conserve about 43% of the country's flora. Protected area in Saudi Arabia
Some of the protected areas of Saudi Arabia are listed below :protected areasSaudi Arabia Abu Duda Al Hair Wetland Al Wahbah Natural Monument Asir National Park Farasan Islands Protected Area Harrat al-Harrah Protected Area Harrat ar-Raha Nature Reserve
Economically important plants in the flora of Saudi Arabia
Underground species العائلةالاسم الدارجالاسم العلمي (Gramineae)الثمام – أبو ركبةPanicum turgidum (Gramineae)النجيلCynodon dactylon Aliliaceaeبصل عسيريAllium asirense (Amaryallidaceae)بنكريشيومPancratium maximum