1Pacing Guide – Quarter 3 Topic 12 InterdependenceBig Idea 17SC.4.L.16.2, SC.4.L.16.3, SC.4.L.17.1, SCPacing Guide – Quarter 3 Topic 1201/21-02/06Keisha Kidd, Curriculum Support SpecialistMary Tweedy, Curriculum Support SpecialistMillard Lightburn, District SupervisorDepartment of Mathematics and ScienceOffice of Academics and Transformation
2Grade 4 Fair Game Big Idea 17 Interdependence Benchmarks SC.4.L.16.2 Explain that although characteristics of plants and animals are inherited, some characteristics can be affected by the environment. (Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1)SC.4.L.16.3 Recognize that animal behaviors may be shaped by heredity and learning. (Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1)SC.4.L.17.2 Explain that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food and that when animals eat plants or other animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed on to them. (Assessed as SC.4.L.17.3)SC.4.L.17.4 Recognize ways plants and animals (invasive species), including humans, can impact the environment. (Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1)
3EngageHold your thumbs against your palms and then untie and tie their shoes.If you don’t have laces, write your name on a sheet of paper.
4Were these tasks difficult? Thumbs are an adaptation that help us do many things. All animals have body parts and other physical adaptations that help them to survive.We will take a look at the physical adaptations that animals and plants have for survival.
5Adaptations 1. Inherited traits 2. Bird adaptations 3. Other mammal adaptations4. Protection5. Hide from predators6. Movement
8Interaction of Organisms 1. Competition2. Sharing resources3. Helping each other4. Living side by side5. Causing harm
9Harmful Effects from Humans 1. Polluted water2. Air pollution3. Land pollution4. Ocean pollution
10Restoration from Humans 1. reclamation2. preservation3. recycling
11Invasive Species1. Impacts 2. Non-native released pets
12Investigation Four: Endangered Species “Wanted—Alive”
13Lesson ObjectivesStudents will become knowledgeable about the endangered animal and plant species in South Florida.Students will identify ways in which plants and /or animals (including humans) can impact the environment.Students will understand how interaction of organisms in ecosystem can impact the environment.Students will identify animals’ energy sources.
14Background Information for Teachers: In 1973, the Endangered Species Act was passed by the United States Congress to classify plants or animals species that should be considered “endangered” or “threatened”.
15 What does it mean when a plant or animal is classified as endangered? Plants or animals species are considered endangered if they are in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or most of its range.Extinction is considered a natural process. However, today’s extinction rates of plants and animals are accelerating at a rate that is faster than a natural process.
16Factors that are contributing to this include: loss of habitatalteration of water flowdrainage of wetlandsintroduction of non-native organismsdirect killing (over-harvesting and poisoning)
17Everglades’ Problems No Natural Water Flow Loss of Habitat Endangered animals:American alligator, cape sable sparrow, green turtle,panther, southern bald eagle, eastern indigo snake
18What are the endangered species found in the Everglades? Animal species that are classified as endangered are::Insects: Schauss SwallowtailMammals: Florida Panther, West Indian Manatee, Key Largo Wood Rat, Key Largo Cotton MouseBirds: Snail (everglades) Kite, Arctic Peregrine Falcon, Cape Sable Sea Side Sparrow, Wood StorkReptiles: Kemp’s Ridley Turtle, Green Turtle, Hawksbill Turtle, Leatherback Turtle, American Crocodile
19SC.4.L ClarificationRecognize ways plants and animals, including humans, can impact the environment.Remarks/Examples:Introduce the impacts of invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper, Cuban anole, Kudzu, Australian pine, non-native pets released into wild (Burmese python). Ocean pollution resulting from discharge of sewage, toxic chemicals, manufacturing wastes, fertilizers, soaps, detergents, runoff and insecticides; population growth causes consumption of limited resources and land use expansion to accommodate for more people; animal extinction (endangered and threatened species).
20Why should these species be saved? There are many benefits of naturally functioning ecosystems.oxygen productionsoil generation and maintenanceground water rechargewater purificationflood protection
21Biological diversity benefits humans. Plants and animals provide humans withfoodclothingenergymedicinesstructural materialsSome species may play a critical role in an ecosystem, and we may not even know about it.We don’t want to find out when it’s too late.
22What is extinction?Extinction is indeed forever. Once a species becomes extinct, a hole is left in the ecosystem and that species’ role, or niche, is left unoccupied.The loss of a single species can affect many other plants and animals.
23Suggested Procedures: Assign or have students choose one of the endangered species plant or animal to research and prepare a poster for the class. Make sure that each species will be covered. Each poster should include:A physical description and pictureType of habitat requiredPredator/Prey relationship (what do they eat/what eats them)What role does the species fill in its environment (niche)
28Introduction to Mini-Unit: The Last Egret As you complete this unit of study, keep a page in your journal to keep track of your thoughts and actions. Include the following:List ways you would protect your home, the South Florida Everglades.Think of ways you take for granted the plants and animals in your environment.Think of ways you can spread the word for protection of the Everglades
30Everglades habitatsIn the Everglades, slight changes in water flow, elevation and other environmental factors result in a variety of unique habitats. Here are a few of the Everglades habitats:
31Lesson ObjectivesSC.4.L.16.2, SC.4.L.16.3, SC.4.L.17.4Tested in Grade 5: SC.5.L.17.1The student will research at least four Everglades/South Florida habitats and be able to identify two animals and one plant that live in each habitat.The student will recognize how each habitat provides the necessary resources (food, water, shelter, and personal space) so that its plants and animals can survive.The student will compare and contrast the differences between the habitat types and the different organisms that live in each.
32Background Information for Teachers: South Florida/Everglades ecosystem is a collection of habitat types. The random formation of the limestone foundation in the Everglades determines where a certain habitat is found. Therefore pockets and islands of different habitats are scattered throughout. The water level and water availability determine the vegetation of a particular habitat, and this in turn determines the wildlife found there.For more teacher background information on the specific habitats see the following site:
33Suggested Procedures Review “Habitat Sweet Habitat” How does this house compare to your home and explain how they are alike?What is a habitat?What resources does a habitat need to provide?foodwatershelterspace
34Everglades National Park Video link for each habitat
35South Florida/Everglades has many habitats Hardwood HammockFreshwater SloughPine RocklandsSawgrass/Prairie MarshMangrove ForestsCoastal LowlandsFreshwater Marl PrairieFlorida Bay
36Habitat Focus Sawgrass/Prairie Marsh Freshwater Slough Pine Rocklands Hardwood Hammock
37Sawgrass/Prairie Marsh Wet HabitatSawgrass, not grass, but a sedgeNamed for tiny sharp saw-like teeth attached to the leaf blade.Water is about two feet deep in wet seasonDuring dry season small pools of water trap thousands of fish that provide food for birdsBirds: ibis, anhinga, heron, wood stork,periphyton, a blue-green algae provides a microhabitat for insects, and tiny fish.
38Freshwater Slough Slow moving river Holds deepest water all year - two to four feet deepAnimal population increases during the Everglades Dry Season (November-May)Plants: Water lilies, giant reed, pond apple treeWading birds: Anhinga, Wood stork, ibisFish: gambusia, Florida gar, bassReptiles: alligator, turtlesInvertebrates: Apple snails
39Pine Rocklands Driest habitat Above sea level elevations Porous oolite limestone bedrockSlash pine has thick bark, high branches & needle like leavesThick bark = microhabitat for beetles, scorpionsFire is essential for the survival of the pine rocklandsFire removes competing plants/trees that are shading the new pine seedlingsFire tolerant plants: cabbage palms, saw palmettosAnimals: scorpions, mice, rabbits, raccoons, panthers, deer, foxes,Birds: woodpeckers, owls, and songbirds
40Symbiotic relationships Hardwood HammockBroad- leafed hardwood tree forestHighest elevated landDark, shady, moist habitatSoft and spongy ground cover from fallen leaves home to many decomposersTrees: Royal Palm, Gumbo Limbo, Live Oak, Strangler Fig, & Lysiloma or “ tree snail tree”Animals: Zebra butterfly, tree snails, panthers, raccoons, mice, rabbits, lizards, snakes, song birdsSymbiotic relationshipsCommensalism: hardwood trees & air plants or epiphytesMutualism: lichens - algae & fungus relationship Sensitive to pollution
41Everglades Habitat Match Up POP QUIZEverglades Habitat Match UpHabitatMain Characteristics1. Fresh Water SloughFire tolerant plants grow in the driest and rockiest habitat.2. Hardwood HammockB. Sedge with saw-like teeth blades grow in this wet habitat.3. Pine RocklandsC. A slow moving river that holds the deepest water.4. Sawgrass MarshD. Broadleaved trees grow on highest elevated land.
42Discussion QuestionsWhat makes habitats different (i.e. water levels and availability, elevation, types of plants, types of animals, etc.)?Do some animals depend on more than one habitat?Are all different habitats necessary?Why do certain plants and animals need a particular habitat?
43Lesson ReviewName at least four habitats found in South Florida/Everglades.Identify two animals and one plant that live in each habitat.What resources habitat provides the necessary resources so that its plants and animals can survive?Name the differences between the habitat types and the different organisms that live in each.
44Habitat Foldable Select four Everglades/South Florida habitats. Identify two animals and one plant that live in each habitat.(See sample)
45Time to play HABITAT TAG Directions:Divide the class into two groups. (Plants vs. Animals)Line up each group in a single file line.The first person in each line selects a picture card and places it in the appropriate habitat. (Relay race style)The first team to finish correctly wins.Plants vs. Animals
47Hardwood Hammocks Broad- leafed hardwood tree forest highest elevated landDark, shady, moist habitatSoft and spongy ground cover from fallen leaves home to many decomposersTrees: Royal Palm, Gumbo Limbo, Live Oak,Strangler Fig, & Lysiloma or “ tree snail tree”Animals: Zebra butterfly, tree snails, panthers, raccoons,mice, rabbits, lizards, snakes, song birdsSymbiotic relationships:- Commensalism: hardwood trees & air plants or epiphytes- Mutualism: lichens - algae & fungus relationshipSensitive to pollution
48Freshwater Slough Slow moving river Holds deepest water all year - two to four feet deepAnimal population increases during theDry SeasonPlants: Water lilies, giant reed, pond apple treeWading birds: Anhinga, Wood stork, ibisFish: gambusia, Florida gar, bassReptiles: alligator, turtlesApple snailsWOODSTORK
49Pine Rocklands Driest habitat Above sea level elevations Porous oolite limestone bedrockSlash pine has thick bark,high branches & needle like leavesThick bark = microhabitat for beetles, scorpionsFire is essential for the survival of the pinelandsFire removes competing plants/trees that are shading the new pine seedlingsFire tolerant plants: cabbage palms, saw palmettosAnimals: scorpions, mice, rabbits, raccoons, panthers, deer, foxes,woodpeckers, owls, and songbirds
50Sawgrass Marsh Wet Habitat Sawgrass, not grass, but a sedge Named for tiny sharp saw-like teeth attached to the leaf blade.Water is about two feet deep in wet seasonDuring dry season small pools of water trap thousands of fish that provide food for birdsbirds: ibis, anhinga, heron, wood stork,periphyton, a blue-green algae provides a microhabitat for insects, and tiny fish
51Here are some examples of adaptations: An ADAPTATION is a characteristic or trait that helps an organism survive in its environment.Here are some examples of adaptations:In drier, temperate deciduous forests a thick bark helps to limit moisture evaporation from the tree's trunk. Since this is not a concern in the high humidity of tropical rainforests, most trees have a thin, smooth bark. The smoothness of the bark may also make it difficult for other plants to grow on their surface.Students should use the word characteristic. Trait will not be used on the FCAT.Camouflage is a type of adaptation that allows animals to blend in with their surroundings. During summer months, the Arctic fox has a brown coat. During winter, the coat of the Arctic fox is white, matching its icy, snowy surroundings.
52What are Adaptations?Adaptations are the result of evolution. Evolution is a change in a species over long periods of time.Adaptations usually occur because a gene mutates or changes by accident! Some mutations can help an animal or plant survive better than others in the species without mutation.For example, imagine a bird species. One day a bird is born with a beak that is longer than the beak of other birds in the species.
53Adaptations Special structures that make an organism more suited for its environment SC.4.L.16.2, SC.4.L.16.3, SC.4.L.17.4Tested in Grade 5: SC.5.L.17.1BirdsBeaks: straight, curved, spoon-like, spear-like = catching foodLegs: long = wading in waterFeet: webbed, colored =successful huntingTreesSlash pine: thick bark,high branches, thin needle-like leaves =Fire resistance
54Adaptations Structural and Behavioral Characteristics
55Why Adapt?When people hear the word adapt, one of the first things that comes to mind is “fitting in.” People are always having to adapt or change to different situations or places.For animals, adaptation is a matter of life or death. If animals don’t adapt in certain ways to their surroundings, they will not survive.In other words, adaptation means having certain body parts or behaviors that allow animals to survive and thrive in their environments.
56In order for plants and animals to survive, they must have structures, behaviors and physiology that meet the requirements of their environment.For example, in order for plants to survive on land, they must have ways to get their water and other nutrients from their surroundings.Just as plants need these essential components to survive, all animals have specific characteristics that allow them to survive as well.
57Structural and Behavioral Adaptations Now, let’s take a closer look at the definition of structural and behavioral adaptations.All organisms have adaptations that help them to survive. Some adaptations are structural and some are behavioral.Structural adaptations are physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird or the fur on a bear.Other adaptations are behavioral. Behavioral adaptations are the things organisms do to survive. For example, bird calls and migrations are behavioral adaptations.
58A Need to Survive!The longer beak helps the bird catch more food. Because the bird can catch more food, it is healthier than the other birds, lives longer and breeds more. The bird passes the gene for a longer beak on to its offspring. They also live longer and have more offspring and the gene continues to be inherited generation after generation.Eventually the longer beak can be found in all of the species. This doesn't happen overnight. It takes thousands of years for a mutation to be found in an entire species.
59A Need to Survive!Over time, animals that are better adapted to their environment survive and breed. Animals that are not well adapted to an environment may not survive.The characteristics that help a species survive in an environment are passed on to future generations. Those characteristics that don't help the species survive slowly disappear.
60Plants adaptations allow them to live in specific environments. Some adaptations are only helpful because of the environment in which a plant lives.Click on this link to explore a web site and learn about plant adaptations in different environments.Go to the linked web site and explore plant adaptations in a variety of environments.
61Like plants, animal adaptations allow them to live in specific environments. Some adaptations are only helpful because of the environment in which a plant or animal lives.Select several animals from the links on the left of the web site. Students talk about how the adaptations help with the animals survival in specific environments.Click on this link to explore a web site and learn about animal adaptations in different environments.
62Group Discussion Round Table: Beginning with the tallest person in your collaborative group, take turns going around the table in a clockwise direction telling one adaptation made by a plant which allows it to survive in its environment.
63Group Discussion Round Table: Beginning with the tallest person in your collaborative group, take turns going around the table in a clockwise direction telling one adaptation made by an animal which allows it to survive in its environment.
64Extension Take the class on a schoolyard habitat observation walk. Have students keep a list of plants and animals they encounter. Students can draw illustrations and/or take pictures.Students compare plants and animals found in the schoolyard to those found in the Everglades habitats studied.
65Technology Integration Everglades video from Discovery:Everglades Royal Field Trip video:Everglades Conservation video:Direct link to habitat descriptions:South Florida/Everglades plant and animal picture cards pgs :
66Big Idea 17 Interdependence Online Resources Online resources
67Guided Practice1. Some plants have thick and waxy layers on top of their leaves. This reduces water loss from evaporation. Where would a plant without waxy leaves grow successfully?where it is very cold at nightwhere it is very hot during the daywhere there is plenty of water availablewhere there is very little water available
68(where there is plenty of water available). The correct answer is C(where there is plenty of water available).A. Plants without waxy leaves may not grow successfully where it is very cold at night. Being very cold at night does not mean that overall evaporation rates would be low. Deserts, for instance, may have hot days and cold nights.B. Plants without waxy leaves would not grow successfully where it is very hot during the day. Areas that are very hot during the day will have high rates of evaporation and, therefore, be likely to have plants with thick, waxy layers on their leaves.C. Plants without waxy leaves would not grow successfully where there is very little water available. Plants in dry areas are likely to be adapted to limit water loss by having thick, waxy layers on their leaves.
692. The snowshoe rabbit has white fur in the winter and brown fur in the summer. Which of the following can you infer about the snowshoe rabbit?It has adapted to blend in with its environment.It has a disease.It travels south for the winter.It was brought from another country.
70(it is adapted to blend with its environment). The correct answer is A(it is adapted to blend with its environment).This fur color change is typical of healthy snowshoe rabbits.The white fur helps the snowshoe rabbit blend in with the snowy winter environment in the north.The snowshoe rabbit is adapted well to the environment from which it originates.
713. Koala bears eat leaves from eucalyptus trees 3. Koala bears eat leaves from eucalyptus trees. If very cold weather killed most of the eucalyptus trees, which of the following would probably NOT happen?Koalas would compete for leaves that were left.Koalas would move farther away to look for food.The number of koalas in the area would be less.The number of koalas in the area would be more.
72(The number of koalas in the area would be more). The correct answer is D(The number of koalas in the area would be more).A. It is true that the koalas would have to continue to compete for a limited food supply.B. As food became more scarce, koalas would begin to wander further in search of food.C. Because of the limited food supply, some koalas would not survive.
73They are food for other large animals. They have small tails. 4. Polar bears have adapted to live in very cold places where it snows often. Which of the following adaptations helps polar bears to survive?They eat plants.They are food for other large animals.They have small tails.They have fur that appears white.Note that a polar bear actually has semi-transparent fur, not white.
745. The nuttall rabbit has adapted to live in the desert 5. The nuttall rabbit has adapted to live in the desert. Which of the following is it likely to eat?cactuscornseedssmaller animals
756. During long periods of dry weather many plants have a special adaptation that helps to keep them from losing water. What is this adaptation?They make seeds.They grow more leaves.They get shorter.Their leaves curl up.
767. The camel has a special adaptation that makes it easier it to live in the desert. What is this adaptation?It stores water in its body.It has large hooves.It has a long neck.Its body is covered with fur.
77Journal Writing Reflection What adaptations of organisms allow them to thrive in their environments?Make sure that the students understand the meaning of the word “thrive- to grow or develop well or vigorously”.
78EvaluateCreate a class data table, identifying the average results of each of the “raincoat” ratings from the different groups in the class. Compare and contrast all the data.Analyze whole class data.Discuss why some data are the same and why some data are different.Discuss what constant variables could have affected the results.
79Journal Writing Reflection Choose a plant or an animal. Write a first person paragraph explaining how YOUR adaptations (as the plant or the animal) have helped you survive in your environment.
80ExtensionHave the students repeat the experiment with real leaves.Use hand lens to observe and record plant adaptation characteristics.Include similarities, differences and summarize findings in science journals.GIZMOSPond EcosystemWater Pollution
81References Polk County Public Schools Plant Adaptation Site Animal Adaptation