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Taiga or Coniferous Forest Found in parts of Canada, Alaska, and Russia.

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Presentation on theme: "Taiga or Coniferous Forest Found in parts of Canada, Alaska, and Russia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taiga or Coniferous Forest Found in parts of Canada, Alaska, and Russia

2 Taiga or Coniferous Forest

3 Taiga – Russian for “ Mountain ” – Long, cold dry winters – Largest terrestrial biome – Very short growing season – Source of lumber, being logged at unsustainable rates

4 Taiga or Coniferous Forest Latitudes between 50ºN and 60ºN

5 Taiga- Warmer and wetter than the Tundra 35 to 40 cm of precipitation yearly (mostly snow)

6 Plants of the Taiga There is no permafrost, so trees can grow. Mosses and lichens grow on the forest floor. Examples: Cone-bearing Evergreen trees

7 Plants of the Taiga Fir tree

8 Plants of the Taiga Spruce tree

9 Plants of the Taiga Hemlock tree

10 Plants of the Taiga Liverwort (a moss)

11 Plants of the Taiga Mosses

12 Animals of the Taiga Many animals live in the Taiga.

13 Animals of the Taiga Moose

14 Animals of the Taiga Black bear

15 Animals of the Taiga Lynx

16 Animals of the Taiga Wolf

17 Animals of the Taiga Badger

18 Animals of the Taiga Wolverine

19 temperate deciduous forests have sufficient rainfall to support large populations of deciduous trees (lose leaves annually) Temperate Deciduous Forest

20 Found in Europe, the eastern part of the U.S.A., and China

21 Temperate Deciduous Forest Found below 50ºN latitude 75 to 150 cm precipitation yearly

22 Temperate Deciduous Forest Wide range of temperatures with 4 seasons Below freezing in winter to 30ºC in summer

23 Temperate Deciduous Forest Soil is rich in nutrients from layers of decomposing leaves

24 Layers of Vegetation Canopy- tree tops that shade the ground below Understory- shrub layer Forest floor- dark and moist layer of dead leaves, twigs, and seeds

25 Layers of Vegetation Canopy

26 Layers of Vegetation Understory

27 Layers of Vegetation Forest floor

28 Life in the Temperate Deciduous Forest The mild climate and rich soil of the temperate deciduous forest supports a wide variety of plant and animal life.

29 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Plant life is abundant.

30 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Oak tree

31 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Hickory tree

32 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Maple tree

33 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Shrubs (Azalea)

34 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Shrubs (Holly)

35 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Wildflowers

36 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Wildflowers

37 Plants of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Ferns

38 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal life is diverse.

39 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Deer

40 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Fox

41 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Snakes (Eastern Garter Snake)

42 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Snakes (Copperhead)

43 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Black bear

44 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Birds (Bald Eagle)

45 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Birds (Barn Owl)

46 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Birds WoodpeckerCardinal

47 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Raccoon

48 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Amphibians Wood frog Leopard Frog

49 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Amphibians Spotted Salamander Jefferson Salamander

50 Animals of the Temperate Deciduous Forest Small Mammals Field Mouse Squirrel

51 Tropical Rain Forest Found near the equator in Africa, South America, Australia, and the Pacific Islands

52

53 Tropical Rain Forest Found near the equator 200 to 225 cm precipitation yearly

54 Tropical Rain Forest Hot and humid all year Temperatures are fairly constant around 25ºC

55 Tropical Rain Forest Soil is nutrient poor and acidic Most plants have shallow roots

56 Tropical Rain Forest Layers of Vegetation

57 Life in the Tropical Rain Forest The tropical rain forest is a lush, productive ecosystem containing more than half of all the species that live on Earth.

58 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest A rain forest may contain more than 700 species of trees and over 1000 species of flowering plants.

59 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest Mahogany tree Notice how the roots rise above the ground to help support this giant tree!

60 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest Bromeliads

61 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest Orchids

62 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest Giant ferns

63 Plants of the Tropical Rain Forest Flowering plants

64 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest The rain forest is home to a huge number of animals.

65 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Monkeys

66 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Exotic birds ToucanParrots

67 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Exotic birds Cockatoo Hummingbird

68 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Snakes (Anaconda)

69 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Snakes Albino Ball Python Green Mamba

70 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Sloths

71 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Bat (Fruit bat)

72 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Insects ButterflyBeetle

73 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Large Cats (Jaguar)

74 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Large Cats (Sumatran Tiger)

75 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Large Cat (Ocelot)

76 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Exotic mammals PacaPeccary

77 Animals of the Tropical Rain Forest Exotic mammals AgoutiNutria

78 Grassland

79 Temperate Grassland ml

80 Grasslands – Grasslands also called plains or prairies Maintained by grazing (large herbivores) and periodic fires or become forest – Most grasslands are converted to agriculture

81 Grassland Grasslands are known by many names. U.S.A. – Prairie or Plains Asia – Steppe South America – Pampas

82 Grassland Wet seasons followed by a season of drought 25 to 75 cm precipitation yearly

83 Grassland The soil is rich and fertile. The grass has extensive root systems, called sod.

84 Plants of the Grassland Grassland regions of the world are important farming areas. Cereal and grains grow here.

85 Plants of the Grassland Wheat

86 Plants of the Grassland Rye

87 Plants of the Grassland Barley

88 Plants of the Grassland Corn

89 Animals of the Grassland The most noticeable animals in grassland ecosystems are usually grazing mammals.

90 Animals of the American Grassland Bison

91 Animals of the American Grassland Prairie Dog

92 Animals of the American Grassland Pronghorn

93 Animals of the American Grassland Coyote

94 Savanna

95

96 African Savanna – Reduced rainfall with prolonged dry seasons Open grassland with scattered shrubs and trees Maintained by periodic fires – Large herbivores and their predators dominate

97 Animals of the African Savanna Gazelle

98 Animals of the African Savanna Wildebeest

99 Animals of the African Savanna Lion

100 Animals of the African Savanna Elephant

101 Animals of the African Savanna Giraffe

102 Desert Found on every continent. The driest biome on Earth

103 Desert Extreme temperatures- Very hot during the day and cool at night

104 Desert Very little rainfall Less than 25 cm precipitation yearly

105 – All great deserts at or near 30 degrees latitude N or S Other deserts on leeward side of mountain ranges Rain shadow effect: drier on leeward side of mountain – Both cold and hot deserts – Special adaptations by both plants and animals Deserts

106

107 Desert The soil ranges from gravel to sand. Soil is nutrient poor.

108 Plants of the Desert Desert plants and animals have evolved adaptations to help them survive in the extreme temperatures and dryness of this biome.

109 Plants of the Desert Cactus SaguaroPrickly Pear

110 Plants of the Desert Mesquite

111 Plants of the Desert Joshua tree

112 Plants of the Desert Wildflowers

113 Plants of the Desert Creosote

114 Animals of the Desert Lizards Desert IguanaFrilled Lizard

115 Animals of the Desert Camel

116 Animals of the Desert Snakes Diamondback Rattlesnake Sidewinder

117 Animals of the Desert Scorpion

118 Animals of the Desert Kangaroo rat

119 Animals of the Desert Gila Monster

120 Animals of the Desert Predatory birds Great Horned OwlKestrel

121 Animals of the Desert Tarantula

122 Aquatic Biomes

123 Aquatic biomes aquatic biomes occupy the largest part of the biosphere

124 Aquatic Biomes The limiting factors in water biomes are: – Amount of salt (salinity) – Amount of dissolved oxygen – Sunlight

125 2 Types of Water Biomes Freshwater – Rivers and Streams – Lakes and Ponds Marine (Saltwater) – Ocean – Estuaries – Seashores (tidal areas)

126 Freshwater Biomes Freshwater contains little or no salt, so it has a LOW salinity. Flowing freshwater = rivers and streams Still Freshwater = lakes and ponds

127 Aquatic Communities Littoral Lymnetic Profundal Benthic Freshwater Biomes

128 Freshwater communities Four zones of life— littoral – shore, light reaches the bottom limnetic – top layer, light penetrates but doesn ’ t reach the bottom profundal – deeper water, light not as abundant Benthic - bottom

129 Flowing Freshwater Streams – The faster a stream flows the greater the amount of dissolved oxygen in it. Faster water flows = oxygen

130 Flowing Freshwater Streams – The fish that live in streams are adapted to fast moving water

131 Flowing Freshwater Rivers – Water moves slower in a river and debris settles on the bottom. – Because of this, rivers tend to have more nutrients and less dissolved oxygen. nutrients and oxygen

132 Flowing Freshwater – Rivers

133 Freshwater Ponds – Small, shallow bodies of water – Sunlight penetrates all the way to the bottom – Most completely filled with plant material – Very high amount of nutrients

134 Freshwater Ponds

135 Freshwater Lakes – Larger and deeper than ponds – Plant growth is limited to the shoreline – Sunlight does NOT penetrate to the bottom= no plants after a certain depth!

136 Freshwater Lakes

137 Water Biomes Plankton are microscopic algae, plants, and other organisms that float on the surface of water biomes. They need sunlight to survive.

138 Water Biomes Phytoplankton are important producers in water biomes. They are the first step in many aquatic food chains

139 a.fresh water biomes have a salt concentration less than 1%, marine biomes > 3%

140 Marine Biomes c. oceans cover 75% of earth’s surface and contain the marine biomes

141 d. evaporation from oceans provides most rainfall

142 e. oceans buffer temperature changes on land

143 f. marine algae and bacteria consume large amounts of the world’s carbon dioxide and produce a major portion of the earth’s oxygen

144 Saltwater Biomes About 95% of the water on Earth has a high concentration of salt. (High salinity)

145 Saltwater Estuaries (Wetlands) – Area where a river meets an ocean – Mix of salt and freshwater – Located near coastlines, border land – Extremely fertile – Nutrient levels are higher than both salt and freshwater

146 Saltwater Estuaries – Chesapeake Bay

147 Saltwater Seashores – Tides have a huge influence on life here – INTERTIDAL ZONE- portion of the shoreline that is covered with water at high tide and exposed to the air at low tide.

148

149 Intertidal Zone Can be sandy or rocky Small fish, clams, crabs, other mussels are trapped in the TIDAL POOLS during low tide

150 Intertidal Zone

151 Saltwater Oceans – Can be divided into 2 main life zones 1. Photic zone- sunlight penetrates 2. Aphotic zone- NO sunlight

152

153 Photic Zone- above 200m Made up of the euphotic & disphotic zones Sunlight penetrates Plant life and animal life is abundant

154 Aphotic Zone- below 200m Sunlight DOES NOT penetrate There are no plants Animal life is highly specialized

155 Aphotic Zone- below 200m Many of the animals of the deep ocean have a special adaptation known as bioluminescence

156 Benthic Zone Benthos Greek “ depths of the sea ”


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