Presentation on theme: "Arabia The Islamic World. Quickwrite Your town is a crossroads for traders and herders. You have always lived in town, but sometimes you envy the freedom."— Presentation transcript:
Quickwrite Your town is a crossroads for traders and herders. You have always lived in town, but sometimes you envy the freedom of the desert travelers. Your uncle, a trader, says you are old enough to join his caravan. It would mean traveling many days by camel. Your parents don’t like the idea but will let you decide. Will you join the caravan? Why or why not?
Geography The Arabian Peninsula In southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. At the intersection of three continents – Africa, Asia, and Europe. Mostly a hot and dry desert.
Geography The Arabian Peninsula is in southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. From the air, you see vast deserts dotted by oases. Coastal plains line the southern and western coasts. Mountain ranges divide these coastal plains from the deserts. The hot, dry Arabian Peninsula is a challenging place to live.
The Desert: Covers about ¾ of the Arabian Peninsula. Summer temps often above 120 degrees. Winter and nighttime temps below freezing Rainfall is very low and long droughts are common Powerful winds and blinding sandstorms Sand dunes rise as high as 800 feet!
Geography The desert is dotted with oases, areas where fresh water is available – water is trapped under the ground and seeps to the surface as a spring or waterhole. Oases are important because they provide plant life and shade as well as water. The date palm became a valuable resource. They only needed water for roots. They provided shade, wood and food. Towns developed around oases.
Geography The Coastal Plain Along the coasts of the peninsula and they separate inland plateaus from the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf. Suitable for farming. The Mountains The largest ranges are along the western and southern edges of the peninsula. They divide the coastal plain from the desert. Rise from 1,000 to 12,000 feet high.
Economy and Trade The Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads location for trade. Quickwrite: What does this mean? Can you think of who might trade here? What would they trade?
Economy and Trade Crossroads between Africa, Asia and Europe Merchants traded along trade routes on land and sea. Camels were the vehicle of choice on land – the “ship of the desert”. Merchants traded spices, silk, and gold. They exported jewelry, glass, and clothing. Arabs got cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China and Southeast Asia. Arabs got ivory, cloves, slaves, and gold from Africa – they traded with porcelain from China, cloth from India, iron from Europe and salt from north of the desert.
Economy and Trade Trade brought many different groups of people through Arabia. New products and ideas were introduced and influenced Arabian culture and society. Over land trade was accomplished by using camels and caravans. Caravans were people who traveled together through the desert and relied on oases for water and shade.
Economy and Trade Two ways of life: Nomads Lived in tents and raised herds of sheep, goats, and camels. They moved along regular routes and depended on camels for transportation. Townspeople Settled in oases where they could farm. Towns became centers of trade for nomads and townspeople. Souk – a market or bazaar in a town. Trade took place in the souk.
A Story You get to be the camel!! Your assignment will be to write a journal entry describing a trip from a desert oasis, where your owner has spent the day trading at the souk, to a city on the coastal plain during the sixth century. You will write your journal from the perspective of the CAMEL!
Religion and Culture Born in Mecca around 570 C.E. His father died before he was born, his mother died when he was 6 He was raised by his uncle who was a caravan merchant This gave Muhammad the chance to visit places such as Syria and Jerusalem. When he got older, he managed a caravan business owned by Khadijah. She was so impressed by him that she proposed marriage – they were married when Muhammad was 25 years old. Muhammad
Religion and Culture Muhammad was a very fair person – he was concerned that all of the wealthy people of Mecca were keeping all the money and not helping the poor. He would go to the hills to meditate When he was 40 he heard a voice calling him to a cave and telling him to “Recite!” He was told that there was only one God (Allah) and that an angel had been sent to him in the cave to receive God’s message and make him a prophet. At first he was reluctant to share this message and told only his wife – but by 613 C.E. he had started to share his message.
Islam Muhammad’s teachings formed the religion of Islam and influenced an entire culture Muslims are the followers of Islam Qur’an – the holy book of Islam – contains messages that Muhammad claimed were from God
Islam Teachings of Muhammad and Islam: Monotheistic – belief in one God Paradise for believers, suffering for others Preparations for worship – wash before Encouraged the freeing of slaves Women’s rights – own property, earn money, get an education Jihad – “to make an effort or to struggle” (struggle within to follow Islamic ways. External struggle is to protect Muslim community – “holy war”) Sunnah – a book - refers to the way Muhammad lived, which provides a model for the duties and way of life expected of Muslims.
Islam Opposition to Islam in Arabia: Muhammad’s teachings upset many Arabs They were told to stop worshipping multiple gods Merchants believed they would lose business if believers stopped making the pilgrimage to Mecca to worship gods and goddesses in the Kaaba.
Muslim people (who follow Islam) have five duties which are called the Five Pillars of Islam. Every Muslim tries to carry out these five things, and it helps them to feel that they are members of the worldwide Muslim community. The Five Pillars of Islam
Pillar 1: SHAHADA This Pillar is a statement of faith - believing and saying the words. “There is no god except God, Muhammad is the messenger of God”. Muslims say this when they are praying
This Pillar is praying five times a day. There are set prayers which Muslims should say, and all Muslims should face Mecca in Arabia when praying, and should pray on a prayer mat. People should wash before they pray. There are fixed movements, which include kneeling with the forehead placed on the ground in front. This expresses the servant status of the human being in relation to Allah. Pillar 2:SALAT
Pillar 3: ZAKAT Each year, Muslims are supposed to give a some of their savings for charity such as helping the poor. In this way, they believe that their wealth is “made pure”
Pillar 4: SAWM Muslim people must not eat food or drink during the month of Ramadan during daylight hours.
Pillar 5: HAJJ This is making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your life, if it can be afforded.
Sources of Belief Qur’an – holy book that includes all the messages that Muhammad received from God. Sunnah – Muhammad’s example for the duties and way of life expected of Muslims. Shariah – Islamic law, based on interpretations of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
Politics - After Muhammad Abu Bakr becomes Caliph – highest leader of Islam One of Muhammad’s first converts. The caliph had to follow Muhammad’s example. Not religious leaders – he was a political and military leader.
Politics Muslims conquer lands – the Persian and Byzantine Empires Make treaties with non-Muslims. Jews and Christians often had to follow special rules and pay a special tax.
Politics Growth: The Umayyads – moved capital from Medina to Damascus. The Abbasids – reorganized the government and made it easier to rule a large region. Growth through trade, warfare and treaties caused a mix of cultures.
Politics The Cities Baghdad – capital of the Islamic Empire in 762 – trade, farming, art was important. It was between two rivers and was known as the round city. It had three round walls surrounding it. The caliph was at the center, then army houses, and on the outside were the citizens. Cordoba – capital of what is now Spain in 756 – It became a center of learning. It was also a center of Jewish culture.
Science & Technology Observatories to study moon, sun, and stars (time/clock making) Astrolabe (invented by Greeks, but improved by Muslims) to chart position of stars and figure out their location
Science & Technology Geography Advances in map making – much more accurate Found better ways to calculate distances
Science & Technology Math In the 800s they combined the Indian number system, including the use of zero with the Greek science of mathematics. Used these new ideas to write a math textbook al-jabr or “algebra” – this laid the foundation for the modern algebra that students still use today.
Science & Technology Medicine Muslim doctors had to take tests before treating people Made encyclopedia of drugs and their effects Wrote descriptions of diseases Started first pharmacy school Public hospital in Baghdad
Science & Technology Philosophy Focus on spiritual issues – Sufism Sufism – teaches that people can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with God. Literature Poetry and short stories – The Thousand and One Nights with Sinbad the Sailor, Aladdin, and Ali Baba and the 40 Thieves.
Science & Technology Architecture Mosques with minarets palaces, marketplaces, libraries (domes, arches, colored bricks, decorative tiles) Blue Mosque in Istanbul
Science & Technology Art Muslim art does not show any animals or humans – Muslims believe that only Allah can create animals or humans or their images. Calligraphy – decorative writing. Muslims used calligraphy to make sayings from the Qur’an into great works of art.
Science & Technology Other advancements: Polo – became a sport for the wealthy Chess – imported from India – became a game to intellectually challenge the wealthy Banking System – got our word “check” from the Arabic word “sakk”. Developed a system of banks and branches. Advanced international trade.