Presentation on theme: "GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT. 1.Historical analysis of cultural construction of gender, gender agents and gender relations 2.Gender issues in Tanzania 3.Policy."— Presentation transcript:
1.Historical analysis of cultural construction of gender, gender agents and gender relations 2.Gender issues in Tanzania 3.Policy analysis and gender mainstreaming strategies
Introduction In the 1950s, Talcott Parsons advanced the idea that the nuclear family effectively reared children to meet the labor demands of a capitalist system. According to Parsons: – Men were more suited for an instrumental role (the person who provides the family’s material support and is often an authority figure). – Women were more suited for an expressive role (the person who provides the family’s emotional support and nurturing).
Introduction Conflict theory – Men have historically had access to most of society ’ s material resources and privileges. – Therefore, it is in their interest to try to maintain their dominant position – Man maintain their position through gender differentiation Symbolic Interactionists emphasize how the concept of gender is socially constructed, maintained, and reproduced in our everyday lives.
Gender The distinction between sex and gender is attributed to the anthropologist Margaret Mead (1935). Sex is the biological category, whereas gender is the culturally shaped expression of sexual difference: the masculine way in which men should behave and the feminine way in which women should behave. In this system woman is the Other: the kind of person whose characteristics are described by contrast with the male norm.
Gender According to Ann Oakley, who introduced the term to sociology, ‘“Sex” refers to the biological division into male and female; “gender” to the parallel and socially unequal division into femininity and masculinity’ Gender draws attention, therefore, to the socially constructed aspects of differences between women and men.
Gender Gender refers to those behaviours which define individuals as male or female in particular social and cultural contexts The term gender has since become extended to refer to more than individual identity and personality Sandra Harding suggests that the study of gender involves three dimensions, gender symbolism (culture), the socio-sexual division of labour (social structure) and gender identities (action and agency).
Gender At the symbolic level gender refers to, to cultural ideals and stereotypes of masculinity and femininity culturally dominant ideas about masculinity and femininity are stereotypes which correspond only crudely to reality. At the structural level, gender refers to the sexual division of labour in institutions and organizations.
Gender At the structural level, there is the unequal division of labour in the household, even between women and men who both have full- time jobs outside, Discrimination in employment, where sex (rather than individual skills and qualifications) plays a large part in determining types of job and chances of promotion.
Gender There are huge cross-cultural variations in ideas about gender and in the roles of men and women. Baby boys and girls are turned into adult men and women by the processes of socialization in child-rearing, education, youth culture, employment practices, and family ideology.
Criticism of the concept of gender. There have been two major kinds of criticism of the concept of gender. Firstly it is based upon a false dichotomy between the biological and the social. This relates to a general criticism that sociology has tended to see the social as disembodied, with the infant as a tabula rasa upon which socialization may write at will, to produce social consciousness and action.
Criticism of the concept of gender. The sex/gender distinction, it is said, is linked to a particular form of feminist politics that seeks the eradication of gender and a move towards androgyny; It leaves little space, for instance, for other feminist concerns with the biological politics of menstruation, contraception, reproductive technology, abortion, or the management of childbirth.
Criticism of the concept of gender. The second kind of criticism relates to the way in which the concept of gender focuses on differences between women and men at the expense of power and domination. Some writers would prefer to use the term patriarchy as the main organizing concept, in order to keep the question of power to the fore, both analytically and politically.
Criticism of the concept of gender. Patriarchy means ‘Rule by the father A doctrine especially associated with Filmer: political authority was divine authority, descended from Adam through the kings of Israel to modern kings. It justified the divine right of kings. The word is used by feminists to decry the practice, whether principled or unthinking, of giving primacy to the male over the female. Patriarchal practices of all sorts are widespread even in societies which claim to practice equal opportunities.
Criticism of the concept of gender. On a lighter note, ‘gender’ has been criticized as a prudish way of avoiding the word ‘sex’. It is true that gender has entered everyday speech in this sense, when people talk (for example) about ‘the opposite gender’. Some sociologists, too, are guilty of this when they refer to ‘gender roles’ or ‘gender discrimination’.
Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Sex- usually thought of as a biological term referring to ascribed genetic, anatomical, and hormonal differences between males and females, but it is actually determined by socially accepted biological criteria, e.g.: – Intersexed- persons with ambiguous genitalia (usually ascribed one or another sex in different cultures)
Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR About 1 babies in 1,000 are born intersexed, or hermaphroditic, which means having an abnormal chromosomal makeup and mixed or indeterminate male and female sex characteristics. This is a function of biological sex. Gender is different because it relates to the way that a person behaves based on their biological sex. In other words, we learn how to act manly or womanly based on the sex that we’re born into and society’s expectations of that sex.
Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Human Studies: Girls who have received testosterone or testosterone-like hormones prenatally have masculinized behavior. – These girls are genetic females but their genetalia are typically masculinized at birth (enlarged clitoris, fused labia that resemble a scrotum). – They often receive an operation to make her appear more feminine.
Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR – These girls have masculinized behavior: Tomboyish, liked vigorous athletic activities, simply utilitarian clothing; little interest in dolls, babysitting, or caring for younger children, jewelry, cosmetics, or hair styles. – They also had a more male-type achievement pattern and male-type attitudes toward sexuality. They preferred boys as playmates and boys' toys.
Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES AND COGNITIVE SKILLS – There is evidence for a critical period for brain organization and hemisphere lateralization (males more lateralized). – Testosterone surge prenatally is responsible. This surge makes females process verbal information better and males process spatial information better. – Female fetuses exposed to abnormally high levels of androgens are better at spatial abilities.
GENDER AGENTS One of the understandings that underlies most theoretical approaches to gender differences involves differences in gender socialization. Socialization is the process that conveys norms and behaviors to potential members of a group. Gender socialization is the process of educating and instructing potential males and females as to the norms, behaviors, values, etc. of group membership
GENDER AGENTS Gender socialization is influenced by different institution which are commonly called gender agent. Gender agent include : families, schools, peer groups, mass media, religious institutions, work place etc. These agent provide both formal and informal “training”
GENDER AGENTS Gender role socialization is the lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine, primarily through four main agents of socialization: families, schools, peers, and the media. 23
FAMILIES Families are usually the primary source of socialization and greatly impact gender role socialization. Social learning theory suggests that the babies and children learn behaviors and meanings through social interaction and internalize the expectations of those around them. – remember: we learn gender, we are not born knowing who wears pink
FAMILIES Consequences of Gender Expectations Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence in the public world. Men are denied access to nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented worlds that women traditionally inhabit.
FAMILIES Through close interaction with parents and small number of others, child: Learns to think and speak Internalizes norms, beliefs, and values Learns gender roles Develops capacity for intimate and personal relationships Cross-culturally, it is okay for girls to choose boy toys, but not vice versa.
FAMILIES Using their toy wheel barrows to help their father with the gardening, these boys are, according to Mead, “taking on the role of the other” and achieving an understanding of themselves as separate social agents.
FAMILIES from birth, boys & girls are handled differently boys: jostled with, played with more roughly, handled more as an infant, punished more, have more freedom, not encouraged to be effeminate girls: cuddled, talked to more, punished with more gentle reprimands, encouraged to be neat, obedient, feminine, quieter, passive, controlled
FAMILIES Socialization affected by: Social class of parents Parenting style Preparedness of parents for parenting role Psychological health of parents (e.g., neglect, abuse, or abandonment of child) Family type (e.g., single parent family, blended family)*
SCHOOLS Schools also socialize children into their gender roles. For instance, research shows that teachers treat boys and girls differently. This may teach children that there are different expectations of them, based on their sex.
SCHOOLS Teach children indirectly to be less emotionally dependent Adjust children to their social order Build character through formal curriculum and “hidden curriculum”: Informal teaching that helps ensure students’ integration into society Reinforce gender roles*
PEER GROUPS Peer group: Individuals usually of same age who enjoy approximately equal status In childhood, formed largely by accident of association Later in life, tend to choose peer groups based on certain criteria Only agent of socialization in childhood and youth not controlled mainly by adults…*
PEER GROUPS Allow children and young people: Opportunities to engage in experiences not provided in family, including examining feelings, beliefs and ideas not acceptable to family Opportunities for self-direction and self- expression Can strongly shape individual’s aspirations and behaviours through stringent demands for conformity*
THE MASS MEDIA Create, manage, and control impressions of what is deemed important and real May inadvertently perpetuate stereotypes May teach individuals to become obedient consumers Exert powerful socializing influence but effects difficult to measure Most effects impersonal and transmitted in one direction
RELIGION-Christianity The LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." (NIV, Genesis 2:18) To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you Jesus appointed only men as His twelve apostles, and this is taken as a sign of women's secondary status.
Grounded in scriptures from the Old and New Testaments that delineate gender roles, duties, and relations. Men are the heads of households and religious and political leaders. Women are to be in subjection to their husbands and other male members of their families and religious community. Some Christian fundamentalists practice polygamy. RELIGION-Christianity
RELIGION-Islam 4:34 "Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them."
RELIGION-Islam Islam affirms “natural differences” between men and women. Hence, the rights and obligations of men and women, and their roles in the Muslim community, are not identical. These differences are motivated by the Islamic conception of the role of women in the family and the Muslim community.
Grounded in passages from the Koran that delineate gender roles, duties, and relations. Men are the heads of households and religious and community leaders. Women are to be in subjection to their husbands and other male members of their families and religious community. Practice polygamy. RELIGION-Islam
RELIGION-Islam Differences in gender roles do not imply the superiority of one gender over the other. Equality of men and women are part of the ethics, spirituality, and humanity of Islam. The Qur'an makes it clear that the sole basis for superiority of any person over another is piety and righteousness, not gender, colour or nationality
RELIGION-Islam O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other, Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (one who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (Qur'an 49:13)
Gender relations Gender relations are the ways in which a culture or society defines rights, responsibilities, and the identities of men and women in relation to one another (Bravo- Baumann, 2000). It is a sort of pre determined position it relates responsibility in the family/ society according to deferent cultures depending on the domination of the male or female
Gender relations Gender relations are power relations between men and women. The ideology that gender differences between men and women are shaped by the exercise of power by men over women underpins this definition. Changing these power relations entails women’s empowerment and men’s conscientisation.
Gender relations The nature of power relation varies from space and time, but may be: Related to production (Economic power) Reproduction (health and children) Social power(education, religion, recreational) Political power ( political representation and decision making)
Gender issues in Tanzania Tanzania’s National Strategy for Gender & Development identified key challenges relating to gender equality : 1. Patriarchal system; customs & traditions that discriminate against women and perpetuate gender inequalities 2.Inadequacies of the legal and institutional framework 3.Lack of capacity for implementing programs towards gender equality & women’s empowerment
Gender issues in Tanzania 4. Persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women 5.Inequalities in arrangements for productive activities and in access to resources 6. Inequalities in the sharing of power and decision‐making
Gender issues in Tanzania 6. Inequalities in the sharing of power and decision‐making Tanzania ranks 15 out of 187 countries in terms of women seated in the of national parliaments. Most of this is due to the provision of “special seat” quotas, established when the country moved from a single-party to multi-party system in 1992. 7. Inequality in access to education, especially secondary and tertiary education
Gender issues in Tanzania 8. Lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of the human rights of women, this involve: Domestic and intimate partner violence Sexual violence Female genital mutilation Trafficking GBV is any harm that is done against a person’s will based on their gender and that has a negative impact on that person’s physical and psychological health, development, and identity GBV
Gender issues in Tanzania Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zam'a: The Prophet forbade laughing at a person who passes wind, and said, "How does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then he may embrace (sleep with) her?" And Hisham said, "As he beats his slave Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 73 :: Hadith 68
Gender issues in Tanzania It is narrated on the authority of Abu Musa Ash'ari: I asked the Messenger of Allah which (attribute) of Islam is more excellent. Upon this he remarked: One in which the Muslims are safe, protected from the tongue and hand of (other Muslims). …… The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman) Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 66
Gender issues in Tanzania Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah 's Apostle said, "Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely." Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 55 :: Hadith 548
Gender issues in Tanzania 9. Inequalities in managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment The key environmental challenges Tanzania currently faces include: – Access to potable water – Soil degradation – Deforestation – Desertification “ many women and girls walk long distances to bring water to their families, often at the expense of education, income generating activities, cultural and political involvement, and rest and recreation.”
Policy analysis and gender mainstreaming strategies Policy analysis: a systematic, organized way to evaluate public policy alternatives or the programs themselves – used in a variety of ways assessing problems developing alternatives evaluating implemented programs – can be used to influence policy
55 Lowi Policy Typology Distributive policy – individualized grants and programs Redistributive policy – one gains from another’s loss Regulatory policy – government restriction of choice Policy have impact on gender and affect men and women differently. It is important to examine gender gap in policy
56 3. What policy change can close the gender gaps? 1. What are the gender gaps in this country? 2. What are the causes of those gen der gaps? A Framework for Diagnosis and Policy Intervention Economic Participation and Opportunity Educational Attainment Health and well-being Political empowerment Proximate Causes Tertiary enrollment Root Causes Prejudice Preferences Constraints Policy Levers University scholarships for women Capabilities necessary for policy change Education budget
GENDER MAINSTREAMING Historically in 1960s of a universal women's movement, raising awareness on women’s role and issues in the development and humanitarian field, has invited governments and international development agencies to respond In the 1970s, focus was placed on the Women in Development movement (WID), which influenced the way the development community integrated women; main objectives were social and political equality for women
GENDER MAINSTREAMING Women in Development’ (WID) – Rooted in modernisation theory and liberal feminist ideas on equality – Economic change = empowerment – Rise of micro-credit policies and the recognition of women in productive economy
GENDER MAINSTREAMING In 1979, a major step was achieved through the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. (CEDAW) The WID approach faced various problems, particularly as programmes and policies adopted did not always succeed in improving women’s situations, mainly in developing countries where the greatest needs were identified.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING In response to this problem, the Women and Development Theory (WAD) arose in the late 1970s, aimed at highlighting the relationship between women and the development process. WAD never managed to go beyond academic discussion to field programming and led the way to the Gender and Development Theory (GAD) in the 1990s which promoted gender mainstreaming
GENDER MAINSTREAMING Women and Development’ (WAD) – Rooted in dependency theory and Marxist feminist ideas – Economic change = empowerment – Advocated no real policy change around involving women in the development process
GENDER MAINSTREAMING Gender and Development (GAD) Ideas and Concepts: Equality vs. inequality Roles, identity and value Empowerment and power Beyond household analysis Practical vs. strategic interests Double burden Men and masculinities Gender mainstreaming
GENDER MAINSTREAMING The Fourth World Conference of Women, organized in Beijing in 1995, confirmed the need for an enhanced framework for international cooperation on gender issues The international community made strong commitments to gender mainstreaming and gender balance, including the empowerment of women.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING The UN Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC examined gender mainstreaming more specifically in 1997 and issued a series of recommendations for mainstreaming the gender perspective in the UN System. At the Beijing+5 review in 2000, Member States and the international community confirmed their commitment to accelerate gender balance implementation.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING The ECOSOC defined gender mainstreaming is a "strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated".
GENDER MAINSTREAMING Gender mainstreaming is a strategy/means for achieving gender equality. The approach seeks to reorganize and restructure policies, institutions, and social programs by taking women’s and men’s perspectives, experiences, and needs into consideration. Gender mainstreaming does not replace, but supplements, specific targeted interventions to address gender inequality such as affirmative action.
Why do we need Gender Mainstreaming? Gender Inequity Gender differentiated needs, interests, etc. Gender differentiated division of labour Society and family’s gender differentiated expectations and
Gender mainstreaming strategies Gender mainstreaming in policy analysis and development draws attention to the impact of policy on people and explores how this impact could vary for women and men, given gender differences and inequalities. A gender perspective contributes to a more informed view of policy options and impacts. It enable decision-makers to assess the potential to narrow gender gaps.
Gender mainstreaming strategies The mainstreaming strategy seeks to ensure that gender considerations are routinely included in the assessment of policy issues, options and impacts, along with other considerations such as socio-economic dimensions. It also routinely seeks increased gender equality as one of the policy outcomes, along with growth, efficiency, poverty reduction, and sustainability. This requires the inclusion of gender perspectives at several points in the policy process.
Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 1. Taking Gender perspectives in the formulation of the policy issue/question to be addressed. 2. To ensure Gender perspectives are relevant to the definition of the information needs to assess policy options. Information on both women’s and men’s situations should be incorporated in the decision-making process
Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 3. To assess the implications of different options by gender. Various options could have different costs and benefits for women and men and different consequences for gender relations and gender equality 4. To take into account in the determination of who will be consulted and how on matters such as the formulation of the issue, the definition of information needs, and assessment of options.
Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 5.To reflect the information and analyses on gender equality issues resulting from the previous step in the formulation of recommendations for policy choices. The government of Tanzania has undertaken various efforts in mainstreaming gender in development policies, programmes and strategies
Tanzania Experience Government strategies in program and policy usually include: Working with international organization on the issue Creating legal frame work including, enacting laws, reviewing the constitution, formulating policy and strategy Building institution to deal with the problem Financial and political commitment.
Tanzania Experience Tanzania has signed various international human rights instruments which bind it morally, and legally to adhere to equity policies and non discriminatory policies in the development process. 1979- CEDAW 1989- Convention on the Rights of Child (CRC); 1995- Beijing Platform of Action 1998-SADC Declaration on Gender and Development, 2003- African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights etc
Tanzania Experience GOT has ratified ILO Declaration on the Fundamental Principles and Human Rights at work. These instruments bind the government morally and legally to pursue non- discriminatory policies and development programmes and processes. GOT vision (2025), which has been operationalised through PRSP I and II (MKUKUTA), has addressed gender in the key outcomes areas and targets.
Tanzania Experience In 1990 The Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children was established as the national machinery for spearheading gender development in the country. In 2000 and 2004 the Government amended the 1977 Constitution among other things, to increase women’s participation in the National Parliament and Local Authorities.
Tanzania Experience The Government also formulated the Women and Gender Development Policy (2000) to put more emphasis on the Women in Development Policy (WID) (1992) in line with the Beijing Platform for Action. GOT formulated a National Strategy for Gender Development (NSGD) to ensure effective implementation of the Women and Gender Development Policy, and to promote gender equality and equity
Tanzania Experience Legal frame work: GOT has established the Human Rights and Good Governance Commission, amended the Public Leadership Code of Ethics GOT has passed laws to protect women, girls and children. These are: The Sexual Offences (Special Provisions) Act No. 8 of 1998, the Land Act No. 4 of 1999 and Village Land Act No. 5 of 1999. Other laws are being reviewed. These include the Marriage Act No. 5 of 1971, Succession and Inheritance Laws and laws relating to children.
Tanzania Experience Government reform Programmes taken gender as one of the components. For instance, the civil service reforms education etc. Other specific gender programmes in the education, health, water, agricultural sectors and TACAIDS. GOT has adopted the Gender Budgeting Initiative (GBI) and including gender in budget guidelines, It is also involving CSOs in the engendering of budget There is collaborative efforts between CSOs actors and individual Government sectors e.g. Campaign promoting women and girls right
Glossary Gender is the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. Gender division of labour refers to the classification and allocation of tasks for women and men in managing domestic and community activities. Gender division of labour inflicts gender stereotyping.
Glossary Gender stereotyping is a way of thinking that persists in people’s attitudes and practices and is also often reflected in policies and laws of a country or community. Gender Equity is synonymous with fair opportunity in access to social services. Gender equity therefore means fair opportunity and access to social services for both women and men.
Glossary Gender blind : This is a conscious or unconscious way of doing or saying things without recognizing or considering differences in position, needs and feelings based on gender Gender bias: occurs when there are gender disparities and differential treatments given to people on the basis of sex such as resources and opportunities for better life.
Glossary Gender discrimination: occurs when one sex is treated either better or worse than the other on the basis of sex. Gender oppression is a result of imbalance of power between women and men. Gender oppression occurs when one sex is treated in cruel, harsh manner or made to feel uncomfortable or unhappy in socio-economic and political life.
Glossary Gender equality refers to equal and fair treatment of women and men members of a community in provision and access to goods and services required to meet their social needs. It includes fair treatment before the law, the undeniable right to life by each member of the community.
Glossary Gender violence refers to any act, omission or conduct by means of which physical, sexual or mental suffering is inflicted directly or indirectly, through threat, coercion, or any other means on any person with the purpose of intimidating, punishing, humiliating, maintaining sex stereotyped roles, undermining the security of a person, self respect or diminishing physical or mental capacities
Question 1.Critically discuss the main efforts taken by the government of Tanzania in mainstreaming gender. 2.Discuss how cultural practice and belief perpetuate gender discrimination in Tanzania 3.What is the rational for including gender mainstreaming in government development programme
Question 4.There is a school of thought that argue that “Gender mainstreaming has failed, it should be abandoned and the focus should be on women’s rights and empowerment.” How far is this statement true 5.With vivid example illustrate how gender is socially constructed out of biological Sex differences. What are some of the criticism of this argument? 6.Discuss the theory and practice of WID, WAD, and GAD