2GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT Historical analysis of cultural construction of gender, gender agents and gender relationsGender issues in TanzaniaPolicy analysis and gender mainstreaming strategies
3IntroductionIn the 1950s, Talcott Parsons advanced the idea that the nuclear family effectively reared children to meet the labor demands of a capitalist system.According to Parsons:Men were more suited for an instrumental role (the person who provides the family’s material support and is often an authority figure).Women were more suited for an expressive role (the person who provides the family’s emotional support and nurturing).
4Introduction Conflict theory Men have historically had access to most of society’s material resources and privileges.Therefore, it is in their interest to try to maintain their dominant positionMan maintain their position through gender differentiationSymbolic Interactionists emphasize how the concept of gender is socially constructed, maintained, and reproduced in our everyday lives.
5GenderThe distinction between sex and gender is attributed to the anthropologist Margaret Mead (1935).Sex is the biological category, whereas gender is the culturally shaped expression of sexual difference: the masculine way in which men should behave and the feminine way in which women should behave.In this system woman is the Other: the kind of person whose characteristics are described by contrast with the male norm.
6GenderAccording to Ann Oakley, who introduced the term to sociology, ‘“Sex” refers to the biological division into male and female;“gender” to the parallel and socially unequal division into femininity and masculinity’Gender draws attention, therefore, to the socially constructed aspects of differences between women and men.
7GenderGender refers to those behaviours which define individuals as male or female in particular social and cultural contextsThe term gender has since become extended to refer to more than individual identity and personalitySandra Harding suggests that the study of gender involves three dimensions, gender symbolism (culture), the socio-sexual division of labour (social structure) and gender identities (action and agency).
8GenderAt the symbolic level gender refers to, to cultural ideals and stereotypes of masculinity and femininityculturally dominant ideas about masculinity and femininity are stereotypes which correspond only crudely to reality.At the structural level, gender refers to the sexual division of labour in institutions and organizations.
9GenderAt the structural level, there is the unequal division of labour in the household, even between women and men who both have full-time jobs outside,Discrimination in employment, where sex (rather than individual skills and qualifications) plays a large part in determining types of job and chances of promotion.
10GenderThere are huge cross-cultural variations in ideas about gender and in the roles of men and women.Baby boys and girls are turned into adult men and women by the processes of socialization in child-rearing, education, youth culture, employment practices, and family ideology.
11Criticism of the concept of gender. There have been two major kinds of criticism of the concept of gender.Firstly it is based upon a false dichotomy between the biological and the social.This relates to a general criticism that sociology has tended to see the social as disembodied, with the infant as a tabula rasa upon which socialization may write at will, to produce social consciousness and action.
12Criticism of the concept of gender. The sex/gender distinction, it is said, is linked to a particular form of feminist politics that seeks the eradication of gender and a move towards androgyny;It leaves little space, for instance, for other feminist concerns with the biological politics of menstruation, contraception, reproductive technology, abortion, or the management of childbirth.
13Criticism of the concept of gender. The second kind of criticism relates to the way in which the concept of gender focuses on differences between women and men at the expense of power and domination.Some writers would prefer to use the term patriarchy as the main organizing concept, in order to keep the question of power to the fore, both analytically and politically.
14Criticism of the concept of gender. Patriarchy means ‘Rule by the fatherA doctrine especially associated with Filmer: political authority was divine authority, descended from Adam through the kings of Israel to modern kings. It justified the divine right of kings.The word is used by feminists to decry the practice, whether principled or unthinking, of giving primacy to the male over the female.Patriarchal practices of all sorts are widespread even in societies which claim to practice equal opportunities.English political thinker who defended the patriarchal thesis against doctrines based on consent. His main work, Patriarcha, was circulated in manuscript among his acquaintances during his lifetime, but only published in 1680 after his death as a defence of Tory support for Charles II in the Exclusion Crisis. Filmer is most famous for the fact that Locke attacked his ideas directly in the First Treatise of Government, and provided an alternative position in the Second Treatise, both published in 1689, immediately after the Glorious Revolution. Filmer argued that all legitimate government is ultimately based on God's gift to Adam of absolute sovereignty and private property over the whole world, and their transmission by primogeniture. Fatherhood and political rule are in principle the same, but the relationship is of analogy, not of homology. In effect, however, because knowledge of the true heirs had been lost after the division of the world between the sons of Noah, Filmer was obliged to admit that any government that continued in power had to be accepted as legitimate whatever its origin.
15Criticism of the concept of gender. On a lighter note, ‘gender’ has been criticized as a prudish way of avoiding the word ‘sex’.It is true that gender has entered everyday speech in this sense, when people talk (for example) about ‘the opposite gender’. Some sociologists, too, are guilty of this when they refer to ‘gender roles’ or ‘gender discrimination’.
16Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Sex- usually thought of as a biological term referring to ascribed genetic, anatomical, and hormonal differences between males and females, but it is actually determined by socially accepted biological criteria, e.g.:Intersexed- persons with ambiguous genitalia (usually ascribed one or another sex in different cultures)
17Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR About 1 babies in 1,000 are born intersexed, or hermaphroditic, which means having an abnormal chromosomal makeup and mixed or indeterminate male and female sex characteristics.This is a function of biological sex.Gender is different because it relates to the way that a person behaves based on their biological sex.In other words, we learn how to act manly or womanly based on the sex that we’re born into and society’s expectations of that sex.
18Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Human Studies: Girls who have received testosterone or testosterone-like hormones prenatally have masculinized behavior.These girls are genetic females but their genetalia are typically masculinized at birth (enlarged clitoris, fused labia that resemble a scrotum).They often receive an operation to make her appear more feminine.
19Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR These girls have masculinized behavior: Tomboyish, liked vigorous athletic activities, simply utilitarian clothing; little interest in dolls, babysitting, or caring for younger children, jewelry, cosmetics, or hair styles.They also had a more male-type achievement pattern and male-type attitudes toward sexuality. They preferred boys as playmates and boys' toys.
20Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES AND COGNITIVE SKILLSThere is evidence for a critical period for brain organization and hemisphere lateralization (males more lateralized).Testosterone surge prenatally is responsible. This surge makes females process verbal information better and males process spatial information better.Female fetuses exposed to abnormally high levels of androgens are better at spatial abilities.
21GENDER AGENTSOne of the understandings that underlies most theoretical approaches to gender differences involves differences in gender socialization.Socialization is the process that conveys norms and behaviors to potential members of a group.Gender socialization is the process of educating and instructing potential males and females as to the norms, behaviors, values, etc. of group membership
22GENDER AGENTSGender socialization is influenced by different institution which are commonly called gender agent.Gender agent include : families, schools, peer groups, mass media, religious institutions, work place etc.These agent provide both formal and informal “training”
23GENDER AGENTSGender role socialization is the lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine, primarily through four main agents of socialization: families, schools, peers, and the media.
24FAMILIESFamilies are usually the primary source of socialization and greatly impact gender role socialization.Social learning theory suggests that the babies and children learn behaviors and meanings through social interaction and internalize the expectations of those around them.remember: we learn gender, we are not born knowing who wears pink
25FAMILIES Consequences of Gender Expectations Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence in the public world.Men are denied access to nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented worlds that women traditionally inhabit.
26FAMILIESThrough close interaction with parents and small number of others, child:Learns to think and speakInternalizes norms, beliefs, and valuesLearns gender rolesDevelops capacity for intimate and personal relationshipsCross-culturally, it is okay for girls to choose boy toys, but not vice versa.
27FAMILIES Using their toy wheel barrows to help their father with the gardening, theseboys are, according to Mead,“taking on the role of theother” and achieving anunderstanding of themselvesas separate social agents.
28FAMILIESfrom birth, boys & girls are handled differently boys: jostled with, played with more roughly,handled more as an infant, punished more, havemore freedom, not encouraged to be effeminategirls: cuddled, talked to more, punished withmore gentle reprimands, encouraged to be neat,obedient, feminine, quieter, passive, controlled
29FAMILIES Socialization affected by: Social class of parents Parenting stylePreparedness of parents for parenting rolePsychological health of parents (e.g., neglect, abuse, or abandonment of child)Family type (e.g., single parent family, blended family)*
30SCHOOLS Schools also socialize children into their gender roles. For instance, research shows that teachers treat boys and girls differently.This may teach children that there are different expectations of them, based on their sex.
31SCHOOLS Teach children indirectly to be less emotionally dependent Adjust children to their social orderBuild character through formal curriculum and “hidden curriculum”: Informal teaching that helps ensure students’ integration into societyReinforce gender roles*
32PEER GROUPSPeer group: Individuals usually of same age who enjoy approximately equal statusIn childhood, formed largely by accident of associationLater in life, tend to choose peer groups based on certain criteriaOnly agent of socialization in childhood and youth not controlled mainly by adults…*
33PEER GROUPS Allow children and young people: Opportunities to engage in experiences not provided in family, including examining feelings, beliefs and ideas not acceptable to familyOpportunities for self-direction and self-expressionCan strongly shape individual’s aspirations and behaviours through stringent demands for conformity*
34THE MASS MEDIACreate, manage, and control impressions of what is deemed important and realMay inadvertently perpetuate stereotypesMay teach individuals to become obedient consumersExert powerful socializing influence but effects difficult to measureMost effects impersonal and transmitted in one direction
35RELIGION-Christianity The LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." (NIV, Genesis 2:18)To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over youJesus appointed only men as His twelve apostles, and this is taken as a sign of women's secondary status.
36RELIGION-Christianity Grounded in scriptures from the Old and New Testaments that delineate gender roles, duties, and relations.Men are the heads of households and religious and political leaders.Women are to be in subjection to their husbands and other male members of their families and religious community.Some Christian fundamentalists practice polygamy.
37RELIGION-Islam4:34 "Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them."But Jesus sent His apostles out to spread the gospel to the world, seeking food and shelter where they could find it, facing great danger and ultimately martyrdom. That would not have been considered an appropriate role for a woman in Biblical times just as it would not be considered appropriate today.
38RELIGION-IslamIslam affirms “natural differences” between men and women. Hence, the rights and obligations of men and women, and their roles in the Muslim community, are not identical.These differences are motivated by the Islamic conception of the role of women in the family and the Muslim community.
39RELIGION-IslamGrounded in passages from the Koran that delineate gender roles, duties, and relations.Men are the heads of households and religious and community leaders.Women are to be in subjection to their husbands and other male members of their families and religious community.Practice polygamy.
41RELIGION-IslamDifferences in gender roles do not imply the superiority of one gender over the other.Equality of men and women are part of the ethics, spirituality, and humanity of Islam.The Qur'an makes it clear that the sole basis for superiority of any person over another is piety and righteousness, not gender, colour or nationality
42RELIGION-IslamO mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other, Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (one who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (Qur'an 49:13)
43Gender relationsGender relations are the ways in which a culture or society defines rights, responsibilities, and the identities of men and women in relation to one another (Bravo-Baumann, 2000).It is a sort of pre determined position it relates responsibility in the family/ society according to deferent cultures depending on the domination of the male or female
44Gender relationsGender relations are power relations between men and women.The ideology that gender differences between men and women are shaped by the exercise of power by men over women underpins this definition.Changing these power relations entails women’s empowerment and men’s conscientisation.
45Gender relationsThe nature of power relation varies from space and time, but may be:Related to production (Economic power)Reproduction (health and children)Social power(education, religion, recreational)Political power ( political representation and decision making)
46Gender issues in Tanzania Tanzania’s National Strategy for Gender & Development identified key challenges relating to gender equality : 1. Patriarchal system; customs & traditions that discriminate against women and perpetuate gender inequalities 2. Inadequacies of the legal and institutional framework 3. Lack of capacity for implementing programs towards gender equality & women’s empowerment
47Gender issues in Tanzania 4. Persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women5. Inequalities in arrangements for productive activities and in access to resourcesInequalities in the sharing of power and decision‐making
48Gender issues in Tanzania Inequalities in the sharing of power and decision‐makingTanzania ranks 15 out of 187 countries in terms of women seated in the of national parliaments.Most of this is due to the provision of “special seat” quotas, established when the country moved from a single-party to multi-party system in 1992.7. Inequality in access to education, especially secondary and tertiary education
49Gender issues in Tanzania 8. Lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of the human rights of women, this involve:Domestic and intimate partner violenceSexual violenceFemale genital mutilationTraffickingGBV is any harm that is done against a person’s willbased on their gender and that has a negative impact onthat person’s physical and psychological health,development, and identityGBV
50Gender issues in Tanzania Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zam'a:The Prophet forbade laughing at a person who passes wind, and said, "How does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then he may embrace (sleep with) her?" And Hisham said, "As he beats his slaveBukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 73 :: Hadith 68
51Gender issues in Tanzania It is narrated on the authority of Abu Musa Ash'ari: I asked the Messenger of Allah which (attribute) of Islam is more excellent. Upon this he remarked: One in which the Muslims are safe, protected from the tongue and hand of (other Muslims). ……The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 66
52Gender issues in Tanzania Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah 's Apostle said, "Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely."Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 55 :: Hadith 548(i.e. Do not offer a high price for a thing which you do not want to buy, in order to deceive the people).
53Gender issues in Tanzania 9. Inequalities in managing natural resources and safeguarding the environmentThe key environmental challenges Tanzania currently faces include:Access to potable waterSoil degradationDeforestationDesertification“ many women and girls walk long distances to bring water totheir families, often at the expense of education, income generatingactivities, cultural and political involvement, and rest and recreation.”
54Policy analysis and gender mainstreaming strategies Policy analysis: a systematic, organized way to evaluate public policy alternatives or the programs themselvesused in a variety of waysassessing problemsdeveloping alternativesevaluating implemented programscan be used to influence policy
55Lowi Policy Typology Distributive policy Redistributive policy individualized grants and programsRedistributive policyone gains from another’s lossRegulatory policygovernment restriction of choicePolicy have impact on gender and affect men and women differently. It is important to examine gender gap in policy
56A Framework for Diagnosis and Policy Intervention 1. What are thegender gaps inthis country?2. What are thecauses of thosegen der gaps?Economic Participation and OpportunityEducational AttainmentHealth and well-beingPolitical empowermentProximate CausesTertiary enrollmentRoot CausesPrejudicePreferencesConstraints3. What policychange can closethe gender gaps?Policy LeversUniversity scholarships for womenCapabilities necessary for policy changeEducation budget
57Gender mainstreamingHistorically in 1960s of a universal women's movement, raising awareness on women’s role and issues in the development and humanitarian field, has invited governments and international development agencies to respondIn the 1970s, focus was placed on the Women in Development movement (WID), which influenced the way the development community integrated women; main objectives were social and political equality for women
58Gender mainstreaming Women in Development’ (WID) Rooted in modernisation theory and liberal feminist ideas on equalityEconomic change = empowermentRise of micro-credit policies and the recognition of women in productive economy
59Gender mainstreamingIn 1979, a major step was achieved through the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. (CEDAW)The WID approach faced various problems, particularly as programmes and policies adopted did not always succeed in improving women’s situations, mainly in developing countries where the greatest needs were identified.
60Gender mainstreamingIn response to this problem, the Women and Development Theory (WAD) arose in the late 1970s, aimed at highlighting the relationship between women and the development process.WAD never managed to go beyond academic discussion to field programming and led the way to the Gender and Development Theory (GAD) in the 1990s which promoted gender mainstreaming
61Gender mainstreaming Women and Development’ (WAD) Rooted in dependency theory and Marxist feminist ideasEconomic change = empowermentAdvocated no real policy change around involving women in the development process
62Gender mainstreaming Gender and Development (GAD) Ideas and Concepts: Equality vs. inequalityRoles, identity and valueEmpowerment and powerBeyond household analysisPractical vs. strategic interestsDouble burdenMen and masculinitiesGender mainstreaming
63Gender mainstreamingThe Fourth World Conference of Women, organized in Beijing in 1995, confirmed the need for an enhanced framework for international cooperation on gender issuesThe international community made strong commitments to gender mainstreaming and gender balance, including the empowerment of women.
64Gender mainstreamingThe UN Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC examined gender mainstreaming more specifically in 1997 and issued a series of recommendations for mainstreaming the gender perspective in the UN System.At the Beijing+5 review in 2000, Member States and the international community confirmed their commitment to accelerate gender balance implementation.
65Gender mainstreaming The ECOSOC defined gender mainstreaming is a "strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated".
66Gender mainstreamingGender mainstreaming is a strategy/means for achieving gender equality.The approach seeks to reorganize and restructure policies, institutions, and social programs by taking women’s and men’s perspectives, experiences, and needs into consideration.Gender mainstreaming does not replace, but supplements, specific targeted interventions to address gender inequality such as affirmative action.
67Why do we need Gender Mainstreaming? Gender differentiated division of labourGender InequityGender differentiated needs, interests, etc.Society and family’s gender differentiated expectations and
68Gender mainstreaming strategies Gender mainstreaming in policy analysis and development draws attention to the impact of policy on people and explores how this impact could vary for women and men, given gender differences and inequalities.A gender perspective contributes to a more informed view of policy options and impacts.It enable decision-makers to assess the potential to narrow gender gaps.
69Gender mainstreaming strategies The mainstreaming strategy seeks to ensure that gender considerations are routinely included in the assessment of policy issues, options and impacts, along with other considerations such as socio-economic dimensions.It also routinely seeks increased gender equality as one of the policy outcomes, along with growth, efficiency, poverty reduction, and sustainability.This requires the inclusion of gender perspectives at several points in the policy process.
70Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 1. Taking Gender perspectives in the formulation of the policy issue/question to be addressed.2. To ensure Gender perspectives are relevant to the definition of the information needs to assess policy options. Information on both women’s and men’s situations should be incorporated in the decision-making process
71Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 3. To assess the implications of different options by gender. Various options could have different costs and benefits for women and men and different consequences for gender relations and gender equality4. To take into account in the determination of who will be consulted and how on matters such as the formulation of the issue, the definition of information needs, and assessment of options.
72Steps in Gender mainstreaming strategies 5. To reflect the information and analyses on gender equality issues resulting from the previous step in the formulation of recommendations for policy choices.The government of Tanzania has undertaken various efforts in mainstreaming gender in development policies, programmes and strategies
73Tanzania ExperienceGovernment strategies in program and policy usually include:Working with international organization on the issueCreating legal frame work including, enacting laws, reviewing the constitution, formulating policy and strategyBuilding institution to deal with the problemFinancial and political commitment.Th.
74Tanzania ExperienceTanzania has signed various international human rights instruments which bind it morally, and legally to adhere to equity policies and non discriminatory policies in the development process.1979- CEDAW1989- Convention on the Rights of Child (CRC);1995- Beijing Platform of Action1998-SADC Declaration on Gender and Development,2003- African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights etcTh.
75Tanzania ExperienceGOT has ratified ILO Declaration on the Fundamental Principles and Human Rights at work. These instruments bind the government morally and legally to pursue non- discriminatory policies and development programmes and processes.GOT vision (2025), which has been operationalised through PRSP I and II (MKUKUTA), has addressed gender in the key outcomes areas and targets.Th.
76Tanzania ExperienceIn 1990 The Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children was established as the national machinery for spearheading gender development in the country.In 2000 and 2004 the Government amended the 1977 Constitution among other things, to increase women’s participation in the National Parliament and Local Authorities.Th.
77Tanzania ExperienceThe Government also formulated the Women and Gender Development Policy (2000) to put more emphasis on the Women in Development Policy (WID) (1992) in line with the Beijing Platform for Action.GOT formulated a National Strategy for Gender Development (NSGD) to ensure effective implementation of the Women and Gender Development Policy, and to promote gender equality and equityTh.
78Tanzania ExperienceLegal frame work: GOT has established the Human Rights and Good Governance Commission, amended the Public Leadership Code of EthicsGOT has passed laws to protect women, girls and children. These are:The Sexual Offences (Special Provisions) Act No. 8 of 1998,the Land Act No. 4 of 1999 and Village Land Act No. 5 of Other laws are being reviewed.These include the Marriage Act No. 5 of 1971, Succession and Inheritance Laws and laws relating to children.Th.
79Tanzania ExperienceGovernment reform Programmes taken gender as one of the components. For instance, the civil service reforms education etc. Other specific gender programmes in the education, health, water, agricultural sectors and TACAIDS.GOT has adopted the Gender Budgeting Initiative (GBI) and including gender in budget guidelines, It is also involving CSOs in the engendering of budgetThere is collaborative efforts between CSOs actors and individual Government sectors e.g. Campaign promoting women and girls rightTh.
80GlossaryGender is the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men.Gender division of labour refers to the classification and allocation of tasks for women and men in managing domestic and community activities. Gender division of labour inflicts gender stereotyping.
81GlossaryGender stereotyping is a way of thinking that persists in people’s attitudes and practices and is also often reflected in policies and laws of a country or community.Gender Equity is synonymous with fair opportunity in access to social services. Gender equity therefore means fair opportunity and access to social services for both women and men.
82GlossaryGender blind : This is a conscious or unconscious way of doing or saying things without recognizing or considering differences in position, needs and feelings based on genderGender bias: occurs when there are gender disparities and differential treatments given to people on the basis of sex such as resources and opportunities for better life.
83GlossaryGender discrimination: occurs when one sex is treated either better or worse than the other on the basis of sex.Gender oppression is a result of imbalance of power between women and men. Gender oppression occurs when one sex is treated in cruel, harsh manner or made to feel uncomfortable or unhappy in socio-economic and political life.
84GlossaryGender equality refers to equal and fair treatment of women and men members of a community in provision and access to goods and services required to meet their social needs. It includes fair treatment before the law, the undeniable right to life by each member of the community.
85GlossaryGender violence refers to any act, omission or conduct by means of which physical, sexual or mental suffering is inflicted directly or indirectly, through threat, coercion, or any other means on any person with the purpose of intimidating, punishing, humiliating, maintaining sex stereotyped roles, undermining the security of a person, self respect or diminishing physical or mental capacities
86QuestionCritically discuss the main efforts taken by the government of Tanzania in mainstreaming gender.Discuss how cultural practice and belief perpetuate gender discrimination in TanzaniaWhat is the rational for including gender mainstreaming in government development programme
87QuestionThere is a school of thought that argue that “Gender mainstreaming has failed, it should be abandoned and the focus should be on women’s rights and empowerment.” How far is this statement trueWith vivid example illustrate how gender is socially constructed out of biological Sex differences. What are some of the criticism of this argument?Discuss the theory and practice of WID, WAD, and GAD