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Unit 1 Section 1.  Agricultural Revolution  The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 BCE also known.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Section 1.  Agricultural Revolution  The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 BCE also known."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 Section 1

2  Agricultural Revolution  The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 BCE also known as the Neolithic Revolution  Bantu  Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages  Foragers  People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects  Hieroglyphics  System of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts.  Used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt  Literacy was limited to small group of scribes and administrators because of the time to learn and master the system

3  Neolithic  The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolutions. It follows the Paleolithic period  Papyrus  A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a course, paper-like writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean & Middle East  Pastoralists  People in agricultural communities in arid regions which depended heavily upon herds of domesticated animals  Pharaoh  The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt.  Trans-Saharan trade  Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara

4  Until approx. 8000BCE all humans lived in a similar manner:  Small nomadic communities determined by marriage and kinship that relied on hunting and gathering to sustain them  All members of the group needed to participate with men hunting and women gathered fruits and plants

5  Approximately 10,000 years ago  Also referred to as the Neolithic Revolution  Over many generations groups of people settle and developed techniques for plant and animal domestication  The change meant less people were needed for food production  This led to specialization of labor and freed members of the community to make important technological and political advances  Examples would be the development of metallurgy in bronze and iron for use in tools and weapons  This also changed gender roles as women were expected to bear & raise children and society progressed into a patriarchal system  Men were in positions of public prominence and power and women had by and large limited rights and power (there are exceptions but this was for the majority)

6  By 3000 BCE major civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia and along the Nile  Later civilizations emerged in the Indus River Valley, China, Mesoamerica and South America  River valleys provided means of transportation as well as rich soil in the flood basins  Though farming in early civilizations brought about more food and greater stability – early civilizations suffered from disease brought on by living among animals and without adequate sewage facilities

7  Civilizations that did not emerge in river valleys were more arid and not well suited for agriculture  Pastoralism developed in these areas  Small societies that were dependent on herds of animals that moved their livestock among grazing lands and watering places  Sometimes pastoralist & agricultural communities came into contact and conflict over land use

8  Religion in Neolithic communities were continued pagan beliefs of forager communities.  Changes developed from the forager’s worship of geographic features and significant animals whereas agriculturalists worshiped Mother Earth and gods of the elements such as fire, wind and rain.

9  Major civilizations first developed in Egypt  Developed a complex social order and economy  Attained scientific and artistic heights  Flexed military muscle  Egypt’s geography and centralized political system made it all possible  Early farming villages appeared in Egypt around 5500 BCE and began domesticating plants and animals  Between 5000 and 3000BCE as the Egyptian climate became drier the population migrated to the fertile land long the Nile River

10  Flowed south to north and provided:  Agricultural support and irrigation  Basis of religion  Transportation  The flooding of the Nile was more predictable than that of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia – however – flood levels did have an effect on political stability  Large floods jeopardized residential areas and thus lives  Small floods reduced the amount of fertile land and food levels which often led to regime change

11  Migration and increased food production caused the population along the Nile to increase  Around 3100 BCE the smaller communities along the Nile were unified into a single state led by a pharaoh.  Dynasties were established within families and reflected which region along the Nile was most powerful.  Egyptian history can also be broken into 3 kingdoms separated by periods of disunity and decline  Old Kingdom was centered in Memphis  Middle & New Kingdoms were based on the south, in Thebes

12  Politically Egypt was centered on the pharaoh who was viewed as an earthly god.  Source of all laws and responsible for maintaining order and prosperity  Also controlled long-distance trade which prevented the emergence of a merchant class  Though seen as all powerful, the pharaoh was supported by a massive bureaucracy  Kept records (development of hieroglyphics and use of papyrus)  Collected taxes  Many pharaoh’s incorporated a merit-based system for awarding promotions or land grants  Power was apparent by the monumental architecture such as the pyramids at Giza

13 Pharaoh - enjoyed wealth and power of being at the top Top officials closely associated with or in the favor of the pharaoh Low level priestsLow-level officials Local leaders and other professionals Slaves – though not in great numbers had a promise of freedom which other societies lacked

14  Male –dominated society but women enjoyed many legal and economic rights that were denied by other ancient civilizations  Examples: women could own and inherit property, they were able to divorce and retain their dowry if the marriage failed  There were also a few queens and queen mothers who held positions of political power  Growth of knowledge:  Advanced mathematics for the construction of major monuments with simple tools  Chemistry developed as an outgrowth of Egyptian belief in the afterlife to perfect mummification  Astronomy led to an advanced calendar to help in crop harvesting, as well as efficient transportation along the Nile

15  During the Old Kingdom Egypt was largely self-sufficient and self-interested.  Physical isolation prevented mass migration or invasion and the limited contact with outsiders was in the context of trade  During the Middle Kingdom Egypt’s economic interests led it to invade Nubia to gain control of gold fields  Nubia is located south of Egypt and connected sub-Saharan Africa with North Africa and thus Nubian leaders acted as middle men in the Trans Sub-Saharan trade network, which Egypt sought to destroy with invasion  During the New Kingdom expansionism continued  Egyptian control of Nubia and further south the kingdom of Kush would last over 500 years and result in cultural dominance by Egypt in these regions  Children from elite Nubian families were taken to Egypt as hostages to ensure cooperation among new subjects

16  In the last millennium BCE powerful leaders emerged in Nubia and later further south in Meroe.  Control shifted to the Nubian kings and surprisingly Egyptian culture, burial customs, and architecture were revitalized  Nubian rule ended with the invasion of the Assyrians in 660 BCE  Assyrian rule was broken in the 4 th Century BCE when power shifted still farther south to Meroe which replaced Egyptian customs with sub-Saharan ones

17  Prior to the Trans-Saharan trade and the rise of the Indian Ocean trade network, sub-Saharan Africa was isolated  Because of scarcity of water, low population density, and the massive size of the Sahara Desert - sub-Saharan Africa was a complex mix of cultures having their own languages and political and social characteristics  Common group characteristics:  All were monarchies  Clear social structures that grouped people according to age, kinship, gender and occupation

18 - What mood would you describe the sculpture evoking? -- What might be the status of the person represented in this sculpture? -- What possible purpose might this sculpture serve?

19  Limited trade until the domestication of the Camel which expanded it significantly  Salt from the Southern region of the desert was traded for palm oil and forest products from the forest zone near the equator  When the Roman Empire dominated North Africa, products from that region were incorporated into the Mediterranean until Rome’s decline in the 3 rd Century CE

20  The Bantu people provided unity in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1 st millennium CE when they slowly migrated from the equatorial region to southern Africa.  As they migrated, they spread the Bantu family of languages (over 300 languages of Southern Africa belong to the Bantu family – can be traced to the Niger- Congo region)  The Bantu also spread the use of iron.  Iron tools improved farming techniques and efficiency  Greater food supply sparked economic development and population growth  Bantu migration increased the vitality of sub-Saharan Africa and played a key role in the Indian Ocean’s large and prosperous trade network


22  Compare and contrast life in foraging societies with life in agricultural societies after the Agricultural Revolutions.  (Be sure to pay attention to why??)

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