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Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 B.C.E. – 1100 C.E. Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 B.C.E. – 1100 C.E. Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 B.C.E. – 1100 C.E. Chapter 7

2 Part One: The Silk Road

3 Map of Silk Road Part 1: The Silk Road

4 Map of Silk Road Part 1: The Silk Road

5 A. Origins and Operations Overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world via Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia. Two periods of heavy use: 150 B.C.E. – 907 C.E. Thirteenth through seventeenth centuries C.E. Regular large-scale trade needed to provide Chinese with western products. Part 1: The Silk Road

6 B. Imports and Exports Chinese imported: Alfalfa Grapes New crops Medicinal products Metals Precious stones Chinese exported: Peaches Apricots Spices Silk Pottery Paper Part 1: The Silk Road

7 C. Impact of the Silk Road Trade Turkic nomads benefited from the trade Their elites constructed houses, lived in settled villages, and became interested in foreign religions. Part 1: The Silk Road

8 D. Military Technologies Central Asian military technologies like the stirrup were exported east and west. This significantly impacted the conduct of war at this time. Part 1: The Silk Road

9 Part Two: Indian Ocean Maritime System

10 A. Introduction Linked lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea. Trade took place in 3 distinct regions: South China Sea Southeast Asia to the east coast of India West coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa Part 2: Indian O. Maritime System

11 Made possible by and followed the patterns of seasonal changes in the monsoon winds. Sailing technology included lateen sail and new shipbuilding techniques. Because distances traveled were longer than in the Mediterranean, traders in these systems did not maintain political ties to homelands. Part 2: Indian O. Maritime System A. Introduction

12 Lateen Sail Part 2: Indian O. Maritime System

13 B. Origins of Contact and Trade Evidence of early trade between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. Trade appears to have broken off as Mesopotamia turned more toward trade with East Africa. Two thousand years ago, Malay sailors migrated to Madagascar. Did not maintain ties to homeland. Part 2: Indian O. Maritime System

14 C. Impact of Indian Ocean Trade What we know about it comes from The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. States goods traded included a wide variety of spices, aromatic resins, pearls Chinese pottery, and other luxury goods. Volume of trade was not as high as in the Mediterranean. Culture of ports was different then culture in their homelands, causing the development of different customs. Part 2: Indian O. Maritime System

15 TEA TRADE THROUGHOUT THE INDIAN OCEAN While tea has been consumed in China for over 2000 years, it took many centuries before Europeans were introduced to this bitter beverage and learned to enjoy it, thanks to the addition of sugar. This lesson traces the history of tea (and tea-drinking accoutrements) within and beyond Asia, beginning in the Classical Era up through the 20 th century.

16 The tea trade changed not only economies but also social rituals. Even as Europeans adopted their own tea-drinking habits, they enjoyed drinking tea from imported Chinese porcelain teacups and teapots typically designed with cobalt blue patterns. Eventually Europeans manufactured their own chinaware with designs that looked Chinese –– Chinoiserie–– but due to differences in geography, Europeans could never produce tea or sugar in Europe. European dependence on imported tea had world-wide consequences.

17 LETS GO TO THE FOLLOWING WEB PAGE! history.org/

18 Part Three: Routes Across the Sahara

19 A. Early Saharan Cultures Evidence of an early Saharan hunting culture that was later joined by cattle breeders who looked like contemporary West Africans. Artwork indicates that the cattle breeders were later succeeded by horse herders who drove chariots. Other artwork indicates that camel riders came after charioteers. Camel was probably related to development of trans-Saharan trade. South to north diffusion of camel riding. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

20 Sahara Rock Wall Painting Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

21 Other Sahara Rock Wall Painting Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

22 B. Trade Across the Sahara Developed slowly when 2 local trade systems linked. Southern Sahara had salt and exported to sub-Saharan regions for kola nuts and palm oil. Traders in north exported agricultural products and wild animals to Italy. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

23 B.1. Invasion and Revolt When Rome declined and the Arabs invaded North Africa (mid-7 th century C.E.), trade of Algeria and Morocco was cut off. Berber people of these areas revolted against the Arabs in the 700s and established independent city-states including Sijilmasa and Tahert. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

24 B.2. The Berbers After 740 the Berbers found that the southern nomads were getting gold dust from the Niger and other areas of West Africa in exchange for their salt. A pattern of trade then developed in which the Berbers of North Africa traded copper and manufactured goods to the nomads of the southern desert in return for gold. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

25 B.3. Kingdom of Ghana One of the early sub-Saharan beneficiaries of this new trans-Saharan trade. First description of kingdom is the eleventh century account by al-Bakri. Described a city of two towns, Muslim merchant town and capital of animist king and his court. After 1076, Ghana was weakened by invasion of Moroccan Almorovids. Even after Almorovid retreat, Ghana never recovered. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

26 Kingdom of Ghana Artwork Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara

27 Part Four: Sub-Saharan Africa

28 A. Geography Large area with many different environmental zone and many geographical obstacles to movement. Significant geographical areas: Sahel Tropical Savanna Tropical Rainforest Temperate highlands Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

29 B. Development of Cultural Unity African cultures are highly diverse. Estimated 2,000 languages spoken on continent. Numerous food production systems. Difficulty in communication and trade between groups. No foreign power was able to conquer Africa and impose a unified culture. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

30 C. African Cultural Characteristics African cultures display certain common features that attest to an underlying cultural unity that some scholars have called “Africanity.” One concept was a kingship in which kings were isolated and oversee societies in which the people are arranged in age groups and kinship divisions. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

31 C. More Characteristics Other common features include: Cultivation with hoe and digging stick Use of rhythms in African music Functions of dancing and mask wearing in rituals Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

32 D. Advent of Iron Sub-Saharan agriculture had its origins north of the equator and then spread southward. Iron working also began north of the equator and spread to southern Africa by 800 C.E. Caused by the Bantu Migrations. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

33 Sub-Saharan African Iron Work Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

34 E. Bantu Migrations Original homeland of the Bantu people was in the area on the border of modern Nigeria and Cameroon. Suggests that Bantu people spread out toward the east and south through a series of migrations over the period of the first millennium C.E. By the eighth century, Bantu-speaking people had reached East Africa. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

35 Bantu Migrations Map Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa

36 Part Five: The Spread of Ideas

37 A. Ideas and Material Evidence Very hard to trace dissemination of ideas in preliterate societies. Invention of coins – created in Anatolia and spread to Europe, North Africa, and India. China made cast copper coins – was this inspired by the Anatolian example? Part 5: Spread of Ideas

38 B. Spread of Religion Spread of ideas in a deliberate and organized fashion such that we can trace it is a phenomenon of the first millennium C.E. Case with spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam Part 5: Spread of Ideas

39 B.1. Spread of Buddhism Facilitated both by royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary pilgrims and missionaries. In India, Mauryan king Ashoka and King Kanishka of the Kushans supported Buddhism. Buddhist missionaries from India traveled to a variety of destinations: West to Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia Also went to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Tibet Part 5: Spread of Ideas

40 B.1. Buddhism Continued Buddhism changed and further developed as it spread. Theraveda Buddhism became dominant in Sri Lanka Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet Chan (Zen) Buddhism in East Asia Part 5: Spread of Ideas

41 Bodhieattva at Barnian Part 5: Spread of Ideas Carved into the side of a cliff at Bamiam, this was one of two monumental Buddhist sculptures near the top of a high mountain pass connecting Kabul, Afghanistan, with the northern parts of the country. Carved in the sixth or seventh century, the sculptures were surrounded by cave dwellings of monks and rock sanctuaries, some dating to the first century B.C.E. ( Ian Griffiths/Robert Harding Picture Library)

42 B.2. Spread of Christianity Armenia was an important trading center for the Silk Road. Mediterranean states spread Christianity to Armenia in order to bring that kingdom over to its side and thus deprive Iran of control of this area. The transmission of Christianity to Ethiopia was similarly linked to a Mediterranean Christian attempt to deprive Iran of trade. Part 5: Spread of Ideas


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