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Energy transfer between organisms

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Presentation on theme: "Energy transfer between organisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy transfer between organisms

2 Energy Remember that all energy starts in the sun.
Producers can convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in food.

3 Energy transfer Predator/prey interactions allow for energy to be transferred between organisms.

4 Energy transfer This unit, we will look at 3 ways of representing energy as it flows from the sun to producers, and from producers to consumers. Energy Pyramids Food Chains Food Webs

5 Energy pyramid An energy pyramid shows how the amount of energy available diminishes (gets less) as it moves from producers to primary consumers, then to secondary consumers, and on to tertiary consumers.

6 Energy pyramid The 10% rule says that only 10% of the energy at each level moves on the next level. Each level of this pyramid is called a trophic level. As you move up trophic levels, less and less of the sun’s original energy is available.

7 Energy pyramid What happens to the other 90% of the energy at each level? Most of it is used by the organism, or lost as heat. Humans radiate about 100 joules of heat per second. That’s the same amount of heat that is radiated from a 100 watt lightbulb!

8 Energy pyramid So the moral of this story is…
It takes a lot of grass to support one owl. (Even though owls don’t eat grass.)

9 Food Chain The flow of energy can also be shown through a food chain.
A food chain shows the energy flow from producers through consumers with a series of arrows.

10 Food Chain The arrows in a food chain always go from the thing that is being eaten toward the thing that is eating. You can think of the arrows as meaning “is eaten by” The arrows show the energy flowing from the prey toward the predator.

11 Food chain Write a paragraph describing what is happening in this food chain.

12 Food chain Make a food chain using these organisms Bluebird
Grasshopper Grass Cooper’s Hawk

13 Food chain Change this food chain into an energy pyramid. cabbage
Aphid Ladybug bird

14 Food web Multiple food chains can be combined to form a food web.
A food web has arrows and shows energy flow just like a food chain does, but it includes many more organisms.

15 Food webs

16 Food web Make a food web by combining these food chains

17 Food Web

18 Food web Make a food web using these organisms. Grasshopper Pinecone
Bird Leaf Caterpillar Squirrel Hawk Snake

19 Wolves in the food chain?
How might wolves affect the Yellowstone ecosystem? Wolf video

20 Humans effect food webs
How might humans have an effect on this food web?

21 Humans effect food webs
How might humans have an effect on this food web?

22 Humans effect food webs
How might humans have an effect on this food web? What is wrong with this food web?

23 Human influence Humans have the ability to influence their environment more than any other organism. Most organisms must change to fit their environment, or go extinct, but humans can change their environment to fit them.

24 Human influence With great power comes great responsibility.
Remember that carrying capacity is how much of a particular organism a certain environment can hold. Humans have changed the carrying capacity for different environments in many ways.

25 Human influence Humans create marshland or nesting boxes for wood ducks, allowing more wood ducks to live in a given area. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

26 Human influence Humans do the same thing for many types of birds, including the Purple Martin, which now relies entirely on humans for nesting. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

27 Human influence Acid rain damages amphibian eggs and reduces the number of frogs. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

28 Human influence Cutting down forests affects many animal populations including squirrels. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

29 Human influence Suburban sprawl reduces Mule Deer winter range, so it decreases the Mule Deer population. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

30 Human influence Humans become bee keepers which increases the number of bees in a given area. How might this affect: Food webs Energy flow

31 Human influence Hawaii story: Sugar Cane introduced Rats introduced
Mongoose introduced Ground dwelling birds disappear Trees that rely upon ground dwelling birds disappear Humans try to save trees by cloning them.

32 Extinction An organism that is close to becoming extinct is called endangered An organism that is extinct is no longer alive anywhere on earth. 99.99% of all living things have gone extinct. The average species lifespan is 4 million years.

33 Extinction Here are some things that have recently gone extinct
Tasmanian Tiger 1936 Here are some things that have recently gone extinct Baiji River Dolphin 2006 Quagga 1883 Passenger Pigeon 1914 Bubal Hartebeast 1923

34 Extinction? Ivory Billed woodpecker – The Grail Bird Coelocanth

35 Endangered Species Here are some things that are endangered
Giant Panda California Condor Here are some things that are endangered African Elephant Golden Lion Tamarin Blue Whale Amur Leopard Wild Bactrian Camel

36 Endangered species razorback sucker kodachrome Bladderpod Here are some endangered and threatened species that are found in Utah (21 animals and 22 plants total) Humpback Chub Kanab Ambersnail Dwarf Bear Poppy Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Canada Lynx - Threatened Utah prairie dog

37 Extinct Pick an endangered species, and write an argumentative essay about whether that organism should or should not be allowed to go extinct. Make sure to relate your organism to the flow of energy in the organism’s ecosystem. Make sure you have a claim, evidence, and a warrant.

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