2Energy Remember that all energy starts in the sun. Producers can convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in food.
3Energy transferPredator/prey interactions allow for energy to be transferred between organisms.
4Energy transferThis unit, we will look at 3 ways of representing energy as it flows from the sun to producers, and from producers to consumers.Energy PyramidsFood ChainsFood Webs
5Energy pyramidAn energy pyramid shows how the amount of energy available diminishes (gets less) as it moves from producers to primary consumers, then to secondary consumers, and on to tertiary consumers.
6Energy pyramidThe 10% rule says that only 10% of the energy at each level moves on the next level.Each level of this pyramid is called a trophic level.As you move up trophic levels, less and less of the sun’s original energy is available.
7Energy pyramidWhat happens to the other 90% of the energy at each level?Most of it is used by the organism, or lost as heat.Humans radiate about 100 joules of heat per second. That’s the same amount of heat that is radiated from a 100 watt lightbulb!
8Energy pyramid So the moral of this story is… It takes a lot of grass to support one owl. (Even though owls don’t eat grass.)
9Food Chain The flow of energy can also be shown through a food chain. A food chain shows the energy flow from producers through consumers with a series of arrows.
10Food ChainThe arrows in a food chain always go from the thing that is being eaten toward the thing that is eating.You can think of the arrows as meaning “is eaten by”The arrows show the energy flowing from the prey toward the predator.
11Food chainWrite a paragraph describing what is happening in this food chain.
12Food chain Make a food chain using these organisms Bluebird GrasshopperGrassCooper’s Hawk
13Food chain Change this food chain into an energy pyramid. cabbage AphidLadybugbird
14Food web Multiple food chains can be combined to form a food web. A food web has arrows and shows energy flow just like a food chain does, but it includes many more organisms.
18Food web Make a food web using these organisms. Grasshopper Pinecone BirdLeafCaterpillarSquirrelHawkSnake
19Wolves in the food chain? How might wolves affect the Yellowstone ecosystem?Wolf video
20Humans effect food webs How might humans have an effect on this food web?
21Humans effect food webs How might humans have an effect on this food web?
22Humans effect food webs How might humans have an effect on this food web?What is wrong with this food web?
23Human influenceHumans have the ability to influence their environment more than any other organism.Most organisms must change to fit their environment, or go extinct, but humans can change their environment to fit them.
24Human influence With great power comes great responsibility. Remember that carrying capacity is how much of a particular organism a certain environment can hold.Humans have changed the carrying capacity for different environments in many ways.
25Human influenceHumans create marshland or nesting boxes for wood ducks, allowing more wood ducks to live in a given area.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
26Human influenceHumans do the same thing for many types of birds, including the Purple Martin, which now relies entirely on humans for nesting.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
27Human influenceAcid rain damages amphibian eggs and reduces the number of frogs.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
28Human influenceCutting down forests affects many animal populations including squirrels.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
29Human influenceSuburban sprawl reduces Mule Deer winter range, so it decreases the Mule Deer population.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
30Human influenceHumans become bee keepers which increases the number of bees in a given area.How might this affect:Food websEnergy flow
31Human influence Hawaii story: Sugar Cane introduced Rats introduced Mongoose introducedGround dwelling birds disappearTrees that rely upon ground dwelling birds disappearHumans try to save trees by cloning them.
32ExtinctionAn organism that is close to becoming extinct is called endangeredAn organism that is extinct is no longer alive anywhere on earth.99.99% of all living things have gone extinct.The average species lifespan is 4 million years.
33Extinction Here are some things that have recently gone extinct Tasmanian Tiger 1936Here are some things that have recently gone extinctBaiji River Dolphin 2006Quagga 1883Passenger Pigeon 1914Bubal Hartebeast 1923
34Extinction?Ivory Billed woodpecker – The Grail BirdCoelocanth
35Endangered Species Here are some things that are endangered Giant PandaCalifornia CondorHere are some things that are endangeredAfrican ElephantGolden Lion TamarinBlue WhaleAmur LeopardWild Bactrian Camel
36Endangered speciesrazorback suckerkodachrome BladderpodHere are some endangered and threatened species that are found in Utah (21 animals and 22 plants total)Humpback ChubKanab AmbersnailDwarf Bear PoppySouthwestern Willow FlycatcherCanada Lynx - ThreatenedUtah prairie dog
37ExtinctPick an endangered species, and write an argumentative essay about whether that organism should or should not be allowed to go extinct.Make sure to relate your organism to the flow of energy in the organism’s ecosystem.Make sure you have a claim, evidence, and a warrant.