Presentation on theme: "Meter Learning about rhythm By Ms. Nardo CW II. Meter 0 In poetry, the meter is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse 0 The Word “stress”"— Presentation transcript:
Meter Learning about rhythm By Ms. Nardo CW II
Meter 0 In poetry, the meter is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse 0 The Word “stress” referred to as beat or accent is also apart of meter 0 Words, when put together with other words, take on a certain sound 0 Ex: Say “The” out-loud…go! 0 “the” has weight (or stress) sound of its own. 0 Now say “Camel” out-loud…go! 0 “camel” has a stress on the first syllable CÁM-el not cam-ÉL 0 Now say “The camel”…go! 0 Which word is weightier or has the stress? Did it sound like “the CAMel” or “THE camel”? 0 When the word “the” is placed in front of the word “camel”, it loses some of its weight. You have just read a meter.
Meter Cont. 0 Let’s try another set of lines to see how stresses affect one another when they’re put together. 0 I do not eat grean eggs and ham. 0 I do not eat them Sam-I-Am. 0 How did you read those lines? They should have sounded like this 0 i DÓ not EÁT green ÉGGS and HÁM 0 i DÓ not EÁT them SÁM-i-ÁM 0 Do you hear the stressed parts?
Counting Meter: Scansion 0 The method that poets use to measure metrical patterns is called Scansion 0 The measurement is called “feet” (almost like math because it is the length of a line) 0 A metrical foot is a unit of measure that measures the stresses in a line of poetry 0 These are the most common one 0 Video: The Art and Science of Poetic Rhythm and MeterThe Art and Science of Poetic Rhythm and Meter 0 Iamb: unstressed followed by stressed 0 as ÁN│un-PÉR│fect ÁCT│ or ÓN │the STÁGE 0 Trochee: stressed followed by unstressed 0 ÁF-ter │SÓL-id │SÍNK-ing 0 Anapest: two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one 0 and the SÓNG,│ in-ter-LÚDE 0 Dactyl: stressed followed by two unstressed 0 JÁC-que-line│ KÉN-ne-dy 0 Spondee: two stressed syllables 0 NÓTE-BÓOK│RÍF-RÁF│BÓX-CÁR 0 Pyrrhic: two unstressed syllables 0 In-ter-TWÍNE (inter being the Pyrrhic)
Counting Meter: Scansion Cont. 0 Scansion is not an exact science but all about how you hear a word. 0 In dictionaries, most of the time, they will show you where the accent it. For word with no accent it might still show you an accent but all the way before the word 0 Part of scanning is being able to hear where the stresses are 0 Read a poem out loud to tune your ear to the patterns a poet creates with meter. 0 When feet are placed together in lines, they create a kind of measurement in which the line itself is measured by the number of feet it contains. 0 Monometer: 1 foot 0 Trimeter: 3 feet 0 Pentameter: 5 feet 0 Heptameter: 7 feet 0 Nonameter: 9 feet 0 Dimeter: 2 feet 0 Tetrameter: 4 feet 0 Hexameter: 6 feet 0 Octameter: 8 feet 0 Here’s what a scanned line looks like: 0 Whose wóods │these áre │I thínk│ I knów 0 This line is “iambic” because of the pattern of unstressed and stressed syllables. It is in four pairs so you would call it a Iambic Tetrameter
Exercise 0 Write out this poem in your notebooks. Skip a line each line and separate it into it’s syllables first. Then read it to yourself 9outloud but not too loud) and listen for the stressed parts and mark them with an accent dash over the stressed parts (ˊ) 0 “Double-Dactyl” by M. M. De Voe Bouncity-flouncity Pamela Anderson Flirting, with silicon Under her top. Diving for volleyballs Hyper-frenetically Flashing a breast to a Day-player cop.
Answer should look like this Bouncity-flouncity Pamela Anderson Flirting, with silicon Under her top. Diving for volleyballs Hyper-frenetically Flashing a breast to a Day-player cop. Bóun-ci-ty│flóun-ci-ty Pá-me-la │Án-der-son Flírt-ing, with│síl-i-con Un-dér│her tóp. Dív-ing for│vól-ley-balls Hý-per-fre-│néti-cal-ly Flásh-ing a│bréast to a Day-pláy│-er cóp.
Blank Verse 0 Iambic Pentameter is the most –used metrical pattern in poetry 0 Blank verse uses iambic pentameter but it is unrhymed (unlike sonnets) 0 Except from “Mending Walls” by Robert Frost Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it And spills the upper boulders in the sun; And makes gaps even two can pass abreast 0 With the stresses in red Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it And spills the upper boulders in the sun; And makes gaps even two can pass abreast
Rhyme: Poetic Music
Rhyme 0 An important musical element that is often misused by not as hard as it seems 0 Represented in poetry in lower case letters 0 There are various types of rhymes: 0 Straight Rhyme 0 Slant Rhyme 0 Internal Rhyme 0 Identical Rhyme 0 Eye Rhymes 0 Homonyms 0 Rising Rhyme 0 Falling Rhyme 0 There are also different rhyme schemes: 0 Rhyming Couplets 0 Terza Rima 0 Rhyme Royal
Straight Rhyme 0 Words that rhyme exactly 0 Should add to the poem not stand on it’s own or take away from the poem 0 Careful with over used rhymes such as 0 Rose/knows 0 Bees/knees 0 Love/dove Good Hours by: Robert Frost I HAD for my winter evening walk— a No one at all with whom to talk, a But I had the cottages in a row b Up to their shining eyes in snow. b And I thought I had the folk within: c I had the sound of a violin; c I had a glimpse through curtain laces d Of youthful forms and youthful faces. d I had such company outward bound. e I went till there were no cottages found. e I turned and repented, but coming back f I saw no window but that was black. f Over the snow my creaking feet g Disturbed the slumbering village street g Like profanation, by your leave, h At ten o’clock of a winter eve. h
Slant Rhyme 0 Two words don’t exactly rhyme but sound some what the same 0 Considered sophisticated if paired with a nice musical flow 0 Can add an unexpected texture to poems 0 Consider the next two poems and how their slant rhymes work
Internal Rhymes 0 Placing rhymes inside the poem rather then the end 0 Intensifies the sounds (Remember alliteration notes) 0 There are three types of Internal Rhymes: 0 Two or more rhyming words occur within the same line 0 I went to town to buy a gown. / I took the car and it wasn’t far. 0 I had a cat who wore a hat. / He looked cool but felt the fool. 0 I lost my dog in the midst of fog. / He found his way home, he doesn't like to roam. 0 Two or more rhyming words will appear in the middle of two separate lines or sometimes in more 0 I see a red boat that has a red flag. / Just like my red coat and my little red pail. 0 I wore a shiny new bow upon my head. / I began to grow and it fit me no more. 0 I'd like to jump into the ocean. / But don't dump me in instead.
Slant Rhyme cont. 301 (I reason, Earth is short) by: Emily Dickinson I reason, Earth is short -- And Anguish -- absolute -- And many hurt, But, what of that? I reason, we could die -- The best Vitality Cannot excel Decay, But, what of that? I reason, that in Heaven -- Somehow, it will be even -- Some new Equation, given -- But, what of that? Note the way the t helps with the making the rhyme fresh and the en gives flow
Internal Rhyme cont. 0 A word at the end of a line rhymes with one or more in the middle of the following line 0 The snowflakes are dancing, floating, and falling. / The church bells are calling, but I will not go. 0 The sky was a clear, rich shiny blue. / I knew it was true but I stayed inside. 0 It is fallible men who make the law. / This may be a flaw, but there's no other way. 0 In the excerpt from The Raven below notice how Poe performs all types of internal rhyme and how it intensifies the sound and flow “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. " 'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door; Only this, and nothing more." 0 Can you label the internal rhymes? What are they? Highlight them. Turn to Ivy’s “Hold Me Down” & find all internal rhymes
Identical Rhyme & Eye Rhymes 0 Identical Rhyme: when a poet uses the same word to rhyme with itself; it’s repetition in disguise that also helps with musical flow 0 Think of Poe’s Annabel Lee; note how in the bottom excerpt even though the words are repeating it helps with the rhythm he is creating. For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling- my darling- my life and my bride, In the sepulchre there by the sea, In her tomb by the sounding sea. 0 Eye Rhymes: Words that look like they should be straight rhymes but are pronounced differently 0 Note the following: mood/wood, laughter/slaughter, prove/love & over/hover
Accent Rules 0 When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work. 1. Accents are often on the first syllable. EX: bá-sic, pró-gram. 2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. EX: bóx-es, un-tíe. 3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. EX: de-láy, ex-plóre. 4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. EX: com-pláin, con-céal. 5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. EX: be-gín-ner, lét-ter. 6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. EX: af-fec-tá-tion, dif-fer-én-ti-ate. 7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. EX: ác-ci-dent, de-tér-mine.
Rhyme Schemes 0 Rhyming Couplets: Two lines end with rhymes; most common scheme in poems 0 aa, bb, cc, dd, etc. 0 Terza Rima: A complicated rhyme scheme invented by Dante Alegheri for The Divine Comedy; this rhyme resembles a braid 0 aba, bcb, cdc, ded, efe, etc. 0 Rhyme Royal: A seven line stanza rhyming scheme; King James I used it thought Geoffrey Chaucer first claim to invented it 0 ababbcc, ababbcc, etc.