2MeterIn poetry, the meter is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verseThe Word “stress” referred to as beat or accent is also apart of meterWords, when put together with other words, take on a certain soundEx: Say “The” out-loud…go!“the” has weight (or stress) sound of its own.Now say “Camel” out-loud…go!“camel” has a stress on the first syllable CÁM-el not cam-ÉLNow say “The camel”…go!Which word is weightier or has the stress? Did it sound like “the CAMel” or “THE camel”?When the word “the” is placed in front of the word “camel”, it loses some of its weight. You have just read a meter.
3Meter Cont.Let’s try another set of lines to see how stresses affect one another when they’re put together.I do not eat grean eggs and ham.I do not eat them Sam-I-Am.How did you read those lines? They should have sounded like thisi DÓ not EÁT green ÉGGS and HÁMi DÓ not EÁT them SÁM-i-ÁMDo you hear the stressed parts?
4Counting Meter: Scansion The method that poets use to measure metrical patterns is called ScansionThe measurement is called “feet” (almost like math because it is the length of a line)A metrical foot is a unit of measure that measures the stresses in a line of poetryThese are the most common oneVideo: The Art and Science of Poetic Rhythm and MeterIamb: unstressed followed by stressedas ÁN│un-PÉR│fect ÁCT│ or ÓN │the STÁGETrochee: stressed followed by unstressedÁF-ter │SÓL-id │SÍNK-ingAnapest: two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed oneand the SÓNG,│ in-ter-LÚDEDactyl: stressed followed by two unstressedJÁC-que-line│ KÉN-ne-dySpondee: two stressed syllablesNÓTE-BÓOK│RÍF-RÁF│BÓX-CÁRPyrrhic: two unstressed syllablesIn-ter-TWÍNE (inter being the Pyrrhic)
5Counting Meter: Scansion Cont. Scansion is not an exact science but all about how you hear a word.In dictionaries, most of the time, they will show you where the accent it. For word with no accent it might still show you an accent but all the way before the wordPart of scanning is being able to hear where the stresses areRead a poem out loud to tune your ear to the patterns a poet creates with meter.When feet are placed together in lines, they create a kind of measurement in which the line itself is measured by the number of feet it contains.Monometer: 1 footTrimeter: 3 feetPentameter: 5 feetHeptameter: 7 feetNonameter: 9 feetDimeter: 2 feetTetrameter: 4 feetHexameter: 6 feetOctameter: 8 feetHere’s what a scanned line looks like:Whose wóods │these áre │I thínk│ I knówThis line is “iambic” because of the pattern of unstressed and stressed syllables. It is in four pairs so you would call it a Iambic Tetrameter
6ExerciseWrite out this poem in your notebooks. Skip a line each line and separate it into it’s syllables first. Then read it to yourself 9outloud but not too loud) and listen for the stressed parts and mark them with an accent dash over the stressed parts (ˊ)“Double-Dactyl” by M. M. De VoeBouncity-flouncityPamela AndersonFlirting, with siliconUnder her top.Diving for volleyballsHyper-freneticallyFlashing a breast to aDay-player cop.
7Answer should look like this Bouncity-flouncity Pamela Anderson Flirting, with silicon Under her top. Diving for volleyballs Hyper-frenetically Flashing a breast to a Day-player cop.Bóun-ci-ty│flóun-ci-ty Pá-me-la │Án-der-son Flírt-ing, with│síl-i-con Un-dér│her tóp. Dív-ing for│vól-ley-balls Hý-per-fre-│néti-cal-ly Flásh-ing a│bréast to a Day-pláy│-er cóp.
8Blank VerseIambic Pentameter is the most –used metrical pattern in poetryBlank verse uses iambic pentameter but it is unrhymed (unlike sonnets)Except from “Mending Walls” by Robert FrostSomething there is that doesn’t love a wall,That sends the frozen-ground-swell under itAnd spills the upper boulders in the sun;And makes gaps even two can pass abreastWith the stresses in red
10RhymeAn important musical element that is often misused by not as hard as it seemsRepresented in poetry in lower case lettersThere are various types of rhymes:Straight RhymeSlant RhymeInternal RhymeIdentical RhymeEye RhymesHomonymsRising RhymeFalling RhymeThere are also different rhyme schemes:Rhyming CoupletsTerza RimaRhyme Royal
11Straight Rhyme Rose/knows Bees/knees Love/dove Good Hours by: Robert Frost I HAD for my winter evening walk— a No one at all with whom to talk, a But I had the cottages in a row b Up to their shining eyes in snow. b And I thought I had the folk within: c I had the sound of a violin; c I had a glimpse through curtain laces d Of youthful forms and youthful faces. d I had such company outward bound. e I went till there were no cottages found. e I turned and repented, but coming back f I saw no window but that was black. f Over the snow my creaking feet g Disturbed the slumbering village street g Like profanation, by your leave, h At ten o’clock of a winter eve. hWords that rhyme exactlyShould add to the poem not stand on it’s own or take away from the poemCareful with over used rhymes such asRose/knowsBees/kneesLove/dove
12Slant Rhyme Two words don’t exactly rhyme but sound some what the same Considered sophisticated if paired with a nice musical flowCan add an unexpected texture to poemsConsider the next two poems and how their slant rhymes work
13Internal Rhymes Placing rhymes inside the poem rather then the end Intensifies the sounds (Remember alliteration notes)There are three types of Internal Rhymes:Two or more rhyming words occur within the same lineI went to town to buy a gown. / I took the car and it wasn’t far.I had a cat who wore a hat. / He looked cool but felt the fool.I lost my dog in the midst of fog. / He found his way home, he doesn't like to roam.Two or more rhyming words will appear in the middle of two separate lines or sometimes in moreI see a red boat that has a red flag. / Just like my red coat and my little red pail.I wore a shiny new bow upon my head. / I began to grow and it fit me no more.I'd like to jump into the ocean. / But don't dump me in instead.
14Slant Rhyme cont.301 (I reason, Earth is short)by: Emily DickinsonI reason, Earth is short --And Anguish -- absolute --And many hurt,But, what of that?I reason, we could die --The best VitalityCannot excel Decay,I reason, that in Heaven --Somehow, it will be even --Some new Equation, given --Note the way the t helps with the making the rhyme fresh and the en gives flow
15Internal Rhyme cont.A word at the end of a line rhymes with one or more in the middle of the following lineThe snowflakes are dancing, floating, and falling. / The church bells are calling, but I will not go.The sky was a clear, rich shiny blue. / I knew it was true but I stayed inside.It is fallible men who make the law. / This may be a flaw, but there's no other way.In the excerpt from The Raven below notice how Poe performs all types of internal rhyme and how it intensifies the sound and flow“Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. "'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door;Only this, and nothing more."Can you label the internal rhymes? What are they? Highlight them. Turn to Ivy’s “Hold Me Down” & find all internal rhymes
16Identical Rhyme & Eye Rhymes Identical Rhyme: when a poet uses the same word to rhyme with itself; it’s repetition in disguise that also helps with musical flowThink of Poe’s Annabel Lee; note how in the bottom excerpt even though the words are repeating it helps with the rhythm he is creating.For the moon never beams without bringing me dreamsOf the beautiful Annabel Lee;And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyesAnd so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the sideOf my darling- my darling- my life and my bride,In the sepulchre there by the sea,In her tomb by the sounding sea.Eye Rhymes: Words that look like they should be straight rhymes but are pronounced differentlyNote the following: mood/wood, laughter/slaughter, prove/love & over/hover
17Accent RulesWhen a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.Accents are often on the first syllable.EX: bá-sic, pró-gram.In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word.EX: bóx-es, un-tíe.If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented.EX: de-láy, ex-plóre.Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable.EX: com-pláin, con-céal.When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented.EX: be-gín-ner, lét-ter.The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate.EX: af-fec-tá-tion, dif-fer-én-ti-ate.In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented.EX: ác-ci-dent, de-tér-mine.
18Rhyme SchemesRhyming Couplets: Two lines end with rhymes; most common scheme in poemsaa, bb, cc, dd, etc.Terza Rima: A complicated rhyme scheme invented by Dante Alegheri for The Divine Comedy; this rhyme resembles a braidaba, bcb, cdc, ded, efe, etc.Rhyme Royal: A seven line stanza rhyming scheme; King James I used it thought Geoffrey Chaucer first claim to invented itababbcc, ababbcc, etc.