Presentation on theme: "Stephanie Hoang Jasmine Klar Younji Lee. Pictures Shah Ismail Safavi Imam Ali Mosque, where Ali is buried. A drawing of Ali. ‘Shia’ written in Arabic."— Presentation transcript:
Pictures Shah Ismail Safavi Imam Ali Mosque, where Ali is buried. A drawing of Ali. ‘Shia’ written in Arabic. Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel.
Pictures The Great Mosque of Kairouan 11 th Century Qur’an in the British Museum A diagram showing the population of Shiites and Sunnis in various countries. Map of Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan (spread of Shia Islam)
570 CE: Muhammad the Prophet is born. 598 CE: Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, is born. 610 CE: This is the year the Muslims cite as the beginning of Muhammad’s mission. 630 CE: The Muslims, led by Muhammad, conquer Mecca. 632 CE: Muhammad dies. Abu Bakr became the first caliph. The conflict between the Shiites and Sunnis begins because the Shiites believe that Ali should have been the first caliph. 634 CE: Umar becomes the second caliph. 636 CE: The Muslims win Iraq from the Persians. 644 CE: Uthman becomes the third caliph after Umar is murdered by a Christian slave. 656 CE: Uthman is murdered. Ali becomes the fourth caliph. His followers are known as the Shiites. His army defeats Aisha, wife of the prophet and daughter of Abu Bakhr, and her forces at the Battle of the Camel. Chronology: Pre-history
661 CE: The Battle of Suffin occurs between Muawayi and Ali. Ali is assassinated by one of his own men. Muawiyah becomes caliph. He makes Damascus his capital and founds the Umayyad dynasty. 680 CE: Muawiya dies. The Battle of Karbala occurs. Ali’s son Hussein fights against the army of the caliph at Karbala in Iraq. He is defeated, and his army is massacred. The division between the Shiites and Sunni is set. 685 CE: Ali’s oldest son, Hasan, fails in an attempted revolt against the Umayyads. 750 CE: Almost the entire Umayyad dynasty is destroyed after the Battle of Zab, a revolt in Egypt led by Abu Al Abbass al-Saffah. 754 CE: Abbass dies. Abbas' son Al Mansur murders Jafar and becomes caliphate. He founds the Abbassid dynasty. 873 CE: The 11th Shiite Imam dies. 874 CE: The son of the 11th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, disappears, leaving his representatives to rule the Shiites. 873-940 CE: This period is known as the Lesser Occultation. 940 CE: The Greater Occultation of the 12th or Hidden Imam begins. There is still no Imam or representative to lead the Shiites. 1258: The Abbassid Dynasty is destroyed by the Mongols, led by Hulagu. Chronology
1501: The Safavid Dynasty is established by Ismail I in Persia, and Shiism is declared the state religion. 1587 CE: Shah Abbas becomes ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. 1598 CE: War against the Uzbeks. The Uzbeks retreat. 1605 CE: War against the Ottomans. The Ottomans retreat. 1624 CE: The Ottomans besiege Baghdad. 1629 CE: Shah Abbas dies. 1638 CE: The Ottomans retake Baghdad. 1639 CE: A peace treaty with the Ottomans is established and the Iranian-Ottoman border is finalized. 1642 CE: Shah Abbas II becomes ruler of Iran. 1667 CE: Shah Abbas II dies. 1732 CE: Shah Abbas III becomes ruler of Iran. 1736 CE: End of the Safavid Dynasty Chronology Continued
Iran CategoryDescription Political The leaders of Sufism (a mystical branch of Islam), also known as the tariqa, passed the leadership through hereditary relations. Isma’il was a young Safavid master that took control by claiming to be the Representative of the Hidden Imam. He continued to lead his army to conquest until all of Iran was controlled and their religion was changed to Shiite Islam. Brought in Shiite religious leaders and granted them land and money for their loyalty Intellectual Isfahan: Center of learning “The School of Isfahan” was a philosophical movement that included part of Aristotle’s philosophy., as well as finding the balance between reason and intuition. (Hikmat-i Ilahi/ Divine Law) Used Persian as a second language for administrative purposes Translated documents into Arabic: Qur’an and other books of mathematics, law, history, and academics Religion Shi’ism became the official religion of Iran during Isma’iI’s rule of the Safavid empire, causing the majority of Iran to convert from Sunni to Shitte Islam. Today, 90% of Iranians are Shi’a and 8% are Sunni. Recognizes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians as religious minorities Art/Architecture Mosques, palaces, and royal gardens were great architectural achievements, especially for the Safavid empire (Imperial Mosque and Royal Palace) Monumental buildings were built in the center of Shiite learning: Isfahan. Book illuminations: miniature paintings/ Poetry Textiles and tile-work
CategoryDescription Technology Conservation of natural elements including water and plants, by creating new patterns of cities and urban spaces Theological sciences Schools, baths, houses, and bazaars were developed Economy Shah Abbas I was the ruler that caused Portuguese’s monopoly on trade with Asia to come to an end, and produced treaties with Great Britain and the Netherlands. Silk Road Spices, sugar, metals, and coffee were some of the main exports. Artisan products provided for foreign trade in Iran, centered in Tabriz. Economic wealth led to the decline due to concentrated wealth in few people Society Members of society must be of Shiite religion or one of the three recognized minorities to have rights of citizenship Society has been based on religious demonstrations and functions within mosques Allow mutah (fixed-term temporary marriage), wearing of the hijab for women, and names derived from saints Existing branches: Twelvers (over 85%), Ismaili, Zaidi Iran Continued
CategoryDescription Political Included Shia groups in its constitution and government Intellectual Individual way of thinking impacted by the teachings in the Quran Religion Two major Shia communities in Afghanistan: the Imami and the Ismaili Twelve Imams (Islamic Leadership Position)are recognized Art/Architecture Calligraphy considered the highest art Afghanistan mosques have distinct structure and architectural designs Impressionist art an integral part of Afghanistan Shia art Technology Muslim, Afghanistan engineers invented windmills Innovations in the use of fossil fuels and industrial mills Economy Shia groups largely dependent on agriculture Society Different interpretations of the Quran and culture have lead to women being denied their rights Women have a strict dress code, do not have the same property, marriage, and divorce rights as men Before introduced to Afghanistan, there were people of many religions including Zorastrianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism Later, increasing amounts of people began to convert to Islam Afghanistan
CategoryDescription Political Some Sunni and Shia militias were associated with political parties. Intellectual The city of Kufa was home to Abu Hanifah, a famous scholar, who established a school of thought that is followed by many Sunni Muslims. Religion The al-Askari Mosque, which is located in Samarra, stores the mausoleums of the 10th and 11th Shia Imams and the shrine of Muhammad al-Mahdi, the 12th Imam. Samarra is also the site of burial for the wives of the prophet Muhammad, making it a site of worship for the Shiites. Many Shiites visit the shrines of Imams. Najaf is considered a great center of pilgrimage. The tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who the Shiites consider to be the first Imam, is located here. Art/Architecture In Nineveh, remains of palace temples were discovered The palace temples were made out of sun-dried bricks, and some were decorated with sculptures and paintings. Technology Irrigation systems Baghdad battery (‘electric battery’) Economy Largely depends on oil, petroleum, and gas for export Agricultural crops include wheat, barley, corn, rice, vegetables, and cotton. Exports cattle and sheep Imports food, fuels, medicines, and manufactured goods Iraq
CategoryDescription Society Shiites make up the majority of the population (65-70%), while Sunnis are a minority (23%). Most Iraqi Shias are Arab. Most Shiites live south of the country and in Baghdad, but some are also found amongst the Turkmen, Kurds and others in the north. Iraq Continued
Comparisons between Countries In Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq, all of the Shia are somewhat associated with politics but in different ways. – In Afghanistan, Shia group was incorporated into their Constitution and government – In Iraq, Shia militia was incorporated into political parties Iran and Iraq were influenced intellectually by the rise of Shia Islam as shown through their centers of learning and schools In Iran, it is important for society to be of Shia religion because rights of citizenship are given to Shiites and three other minorities The three countries' art and architecture revolves around the architecture of mosques Economy was largely affected by Shia religion in Iran as shown through their extensive trade routes In Iraq and Afghanistan, technological advances in constructions were made by Muslim engineers. In Iran, as a result of the spread of Shia religion, technological advances were made especially in the city structure
Sunni Islam makes up 90% of Muslim population Majority of Shiites live in Iraq and Iran Both religions have some similar beliefs. Both believe that Allah is the only god, and Mohammad was the last prophet. The Quran is the holy book for both Shiites and Sunnis Sunnis and Shiites both live according to the five pillars of Islam (the five duties of every Muslim) Mosques are places of worship for both Shiites and Sunnis Both practice religious days such as Eid al=Adha, Eid al-Fitr, and Ramadan Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the legitimate religious leaders In contrast, Shiites believe that only heirs of Ali are legitimate successors of Mohammed Shiites have different methods of prayer. They place their head on hard clay and sometimes condense their daily prayers into three prayers Shiites permit temporary marriages while they are banned by the Sunnis Shiite incorporate the holy day of Ashura into their religion as an important religious holiday Comparisons between Shiite and Sunni Islam
Change Over Time The followers of Islam split into two distinct groups, Sunni and Shiite in 680 CE. Over time, their religious practices, customs, and beliefs have slowly diverted. In 765 CE, the division between Shiites separated into various branches, including the Twelvers, based on their support of various imams. In Iran, the Safavid empire made Iran convert from Sunni Islam to a population consisting mainly those of the Shiite Islam faith, significantly changing the demographics. Overall, the distinctions between Sunni and Shiite have increased over time and the conflict between both groups has remained unresolved.
Uses in the World Today Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) is a part of Al-Qaeda, a Sunni Muslim group. It was founded in 2003 under the leadership of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. This organization may have been involved in the plot to bomb the Millennium celebrations in 1999 in the United States. One of its main goals is to withdraw the U.S. forces from Iraq and to defeat Shiite militias. The construction of a mosque in New York City near Ground Zero is currently a highly debated issue. Many are hesitant to build an Islamic center near the location where the 9/11 terrorist attacks, executed by 19 Muslim men, occurred. In Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq, religious days such as Ashura have become national holidays and countries still participate in it in the present Ashura is a public holiday in which Shiites mourn the death of Hussein and engage in chest beating rituals and inflict pain on themselves to enact the suffering of Hussein A variety of holy mosques/sites still play significant roles in the world today. For example, the significance of the Masjid al-Haram holy site is shown through how all Muslims turn in the direction of the site in their daily prayers The Shia Family Law is an Afghanistan law that affects the Shia population; Afghanistan Shia women are currently protesting the law because it has taken away much of their marital rights and caused controversial issues such as the legalization of rape between a married couple
Bibliography "History of Iran: Safavid Empire 1502 - 1736." Iran Chamber Society. Web. 08 Oct. 2010.. "Islam Divided: The Shiites and Sunnis." Constitutional Rights Foundation. Web. 07 Oct. 2010.. "Islam, The Spread Of Islam." World History International: World History Essays From Prehistory To The Present. Web. 07 Oct. 2010.. "The Origins of the Sunni/Shia Split in Islam." Islam For Today. Web. 07 Oct. 2010.. "The Origins of the Sunni-Shi'Ite Split - The Flow of History." The Flow of History. Web. 07 Oct. 2010..
Individual Work PIRATES (Iran): Jasmine Klar PIRATES (Iraq): Stephanie Hoang PIRATES (Afghanistan): Younji Lee Chronology: Stephanie Hoang Change Over Time: Jasmine Klar Comparisons: Younji Lee Maps/Pictures/Charts: Jasmine Klar Uses in the World Today: Stephanie Hoang, Younji Lee