2ClauseA clause is a group of words that contains a verb and its subject.It is used as part of a sentence or a complete sentence.If it is part of a sentence, it depends on the rest of the sentence… making it a subordinate clause.If it is a complete sentence, it is an independent clause.
3Independent ClausesAn independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.Examples:Jennifer practices soccer every day.Her team won yesterday’s game.When an independent clause stands alone, it is called a sentence. They are usually called independent clauses when it is joined with another clause.After Kevin completed his homework and fed the dogs, he played some video games.Linda ate some fruit while she did her homework.
4Subordinate ClausesA subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.Examples:If you finish on timeWhich we found on the sidewalkThat Dad cooked for usAdded to a sentence, a subordinate clause adds details.We all enjoyed the dinner that dad cooked for us.If you finish on time, we will go to the movies as planned.The wallet which we found on the sidewalk belonged to Mr. Jones.
5Words often used to begin subordinate clauses AfterBecauseThatWhereverAlthoughBeforeThoughWhetherAsHowUnlessWhichAs ifIfUntilWhileAs long asSinceWhenWhoAs much asSo thatWheneverWhomAs thoughThanWhereWhose
6Independent VS Subordinate While Dad was sleeping, we decorated the house for the surprise party.Just as Terri came in the door, the phone rang.Before you accept the invitation, ask your mother.Somalis, who traditionally raise and export livestock, are nomadic.Do you know when the train should arrive?Although he was better at social studies, he loved art.Two uniformed soldiers guarded the entrance where an iron gate stood.When the snow melts, these streams will fill and rush down to the valley.The art paper that you are using really soaks up ink.Toni Morrison, whose parents were once sharecroppers, won the Pulitzer Prize.
7Adjective ClausesAn adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Remember that a subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought.These clauses will * most likely* begin with our relative pronouns… that, which, who, whom, or whose.They will answer the questions Which one? or What kind?Be careful when identifying adjective clauses… do not get them confused with adjectives or adjective phrases.Examples:Adjective: a white catAdjective phrase: a cat with white furAdjective clause: a cat that has white fur (this clause has a subject – that and a verb- has)
8Finding Adjective Clauses Jadee, whose aunt once rode on the space shuttle, is visiting her this summer.Grandfather gave me that arrowhead, which has been in our family for generations.The doctor looked at the notes that the nurse had written.What was the name of the man who helped us?Panama hats, which are prized far and wide, are woven of jipijapa leaves.We could not have done it without Harry, whose skill saved the day.Have you heard of Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz, the Mexican nun who championed women’s rights in 1691?Argentina’s pampas, where fine herds of cattle graze, offer ranchers rich and vast grasslands.Since ancient times, Asian ginger has been prized for the tang that it gives many dishes.Ric, whom Doris calls “The Prince,” is always a good sport.
9Adverb ClausesAn adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Remember that a subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought.They will answer the following questions: How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? How much? How long? or Under what conditions?Be careful when identifying adverb clauses… do not get them confused with adverbs or adverb phrases.Examples:Adverb: Shyly, the toddler hid behind his mother.Adverb phrase: With a shy smile, the toddler hid behind his mother.Adverb clause: Since the child was shy, she hid behind her mother. (this clause has a subject – toddler and a verb- was)
10Finding Adverb Clauses Tiny wildflowers sprang up wherever they could.Unless you want to sink, do not pull that large plug at the bottom of the boat.Wind blew softly across the sand dunes while the caravan made its way home.As soon as the cows come in, they must be fed.To our surprise, when we entered the woods, a dozen armadillos were foraging right in front of us.Although the piano had not been used for some time, it was still in tune.Unless the shipment arrives today, the order will not be ready on time.Because the airplane had been painted yellow, it was easily seen from the ground.I’m not going if you’re not going.I had never heard anyone sing as he did.
11Independent VS Subordinate AND Adjective VS Adverb Camels stamped and bellowed in annoyance when packs were put on them.Aloe plants, which originated in Africa, are now widely available in the United States.As far as scientists can tell, there is no connection between these two events.If you adjust the blinds, you won’t have that glare on your monitor.The castanets, which were quite old, had been Melanie’s grandmother’s.You were always singing when you were little.Three Indian elephants patiently towed two logs that had just been cut.Stay with us as long as you want.Southeast Asia depends heavily on the seasonal rain that the monsoons bring.The Forbidden City, where China’s emperors lived, is enclosed by walls.