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What Are “Rhetorical Appeals”? Rhetorical Appeals: Persuasive strategies used in arguments to support claims and respond to counterarguments Comes from.

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Presentation on theme: "What Are “Rhetorical Appeals”? Rhetorical Appeals: Persuasive strategies used in arguments to support claims and respond to counterarguments Comes from."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Are “Rhetorical Appeals”? Rhetorical Appeals: Persuasive strategies used in arguments to support claims and respond to counterarguments Comes from Aristotle’s On Rhetoric (2000 years old) and is still used in all modern rhetorics. There are three main types of rhetorical appeals: logos, ethos, and pathos Effective arguments generally use a combination of all three appeals Martin Luther King, Jr. at the March on Washington (1963)

2 Logos Logos: Appeal to reason Greek for “word”—English “logic” Logos refers to the internal consistency of the message: – The clarity of the claim – The logic of the reasons – The reliability and effectiveness of the evidence The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument’s “logical appeal” Ask these questions: – Does your message make sense? Are you understandable? – Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence? – Is your argument structure transparent? – Will your call-to-action (if you have one) lead to the desired outcome that you promise? The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David (1787)

3 Ethos Ethos: Appeal to character Aristotle first defined as a speaker’s “trustworthiness” Ethos refers to the credibility of the writer Ways to build your ethos: – Use evidence from credible sources – Acknowledge and respect opposing views – Keep an open mind – Proofread! The impact of ethos on an audience is sometimes called the argument’s “ethical appeal”

4 Pathos Pathos: Appeal to emotion Greek for “suffering” or “experience” Pathos appeals to the audience’s needs, values, and emotional sensibilities An appeal to pathos causes an audience to identify with the writer’s point of view Often relies on narrative, which can turn abstractions of logic into something palpable and present

5 Ad 1: Coca-Cola Who is the audience? What is the purpose? What appeals are being made ? How are these appeals being made? Why are these appeals being used?

6 Ad 2: Camel Cigarettes Who is the audience? What is the purpose? What appeals are being made ? How are these appeals being made? Why are these appeals being used?

7 TV Ads: Apple, Clorox, and Chrysler Who is the audience? What is the purpose? What appeals are being made ? How are these appeals being made? Why are these appeals being used? watch?feature=player_profi lepage&v=_5i1Dyj5k1A watch?feature=player_profi lepage&v=_5i1Dyj5k1A watch?feature=player_profi lepage&v=YoMdHLGHnZg watch?feature=player_profi lepage&v=YoMdHLGHnZg watch?feature=player_deta ilpage&v=SKL254Y_jtc watch?feature=player_deta ilpage&v=SKL254Y_jtc


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