Presentation on theme: "Before We Begin May be helpful to review Chapter 3 to refresh your thinking about Africa. Period of 1000-1500 CE is often a time frame used in the essay."— Presentation transcript:
Before We Begin May be helpful to review Chapter 3 to refresh your thinking about Africa. Period of CE is often a time frame used in the essay portion of the national exam, as there are numerous comparison/contrast or changes and continuities question possibilities.
Effects of Early African Migrations African migrations began around 3000 BCE with the intermittent and incremental Bantu migration and were generally complete by 1000 CE as Bantu-speaking people came to occupy most of Africa south of the equator.
Effects of Early African Migrations Agriculture and Population Growth Bantu peoples established agricultural societies and displaced indigenous hunters and gatherers in almost all parts of Africa. Grew yams, millet, and sorghum. Indian ocean merchants eventually bring taro, chicken, and bananas to places like Madagascar. Bananas enriched diets and led to population growth.
Effects of Early African Migrations African Political Organization Though kin-based societies survived in much of sub- Saharan Africa until the mid-nineteenth century, after the first millennium regional states and kingdoms became increasingly prominent. By 1000 CE, African migration slowed and Bantu societies governed themselves mostly through family and kinship groups rather than relying on elaborate bureaucracies. (Village Chiefs, etc…)
Effects of Early African Migrations African Political Organization after 1000 CE Population growth made it difficult to maintain kin-based societies Bantu communities began to formally organize militaries and governments City States formed in West Africa Ife and Benin in West Africa Kingdom of Kongo Most tightly centralized and prosperous Bantu Kingdom Trading hub King and officials administered judicial, political, and military affairs Ruled for nearly 400 years.
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Merchants brought Islam to sub-Saharan Africa – over land along the camel routes to west Africa and across the sea lanes to east Africa. Islam would profoundly influence religious, cultural, political, social, and economic development throughout the continent.
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Trans-Saharan Trade and Islamic States in West Africa Camels – Important to trade because prior to their introduction and the development of the saddle the Sahara was almost impossible to trade across.
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Islamic States in West Africa Ghana developed as a strong regional state during the fourth and fifth centuries CE as a result of trade. By the late eighth century CE Muslim merchants arrived and Ghana became a trading hub, which led to increased wealth and power in Ghana Ghana controlled trade and taxes on gold used in trade, allowing Ghanaian kings to build financial wealth and strong militaries to protect their empires. Ghanaian Kings adopted Islam, but did not force it on their citizens Ghana collapsed under perpetual attack from northern nomadic invaders.
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Islamic States in West Africa Mali Emerges as Ghana collapses around 1230 CE. Their legendary “lion” prince Sundiata expanded the Mali kingdom to encompass Ghana, Niger, Senegal, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Benefited from trans-Saharan trade. Became strong Islamic realm under Mansa Musa (nephew of Sundiata) Established mosques and Islamic schools throughout Mali after Overrun by the Songhai empire in fifteenth century
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires The Indian Ocean Trade and Islamic States in East Africa Wealth generated by the Indian Ocean trade financed the coastal city-states and interior kingdoms of east Africa. Tenth Century CE – Islamic merchants began regular, sustained interaction with the indigenous Bantu people in eastern Africa. The coastal dwellers formed the basis of the new Swahili culture.
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires The Indian Ocean Trade and Islamic States in East Africa Swahili – Refers to the people who lived along the east African coast. Over time they developed a unique language and culture that mixed Bantu and Arabic traditions. Swahili traded gold, slaves, and ivory from the African interior for textiles brought to Africa from Persia, India, and China by Muslim merchants Trading economy lead to great material wealth for Swahili coastal city states
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires Islam States in East Africa Zimbabwe – Central African Kingdom influenced by the wealth from east African trade Became increasing wealthy, complex, and organized society by the fifteenth century. Controlled and taxed trade between the interior and the coast and organized the flow of gold, slaves, and local products. As in West Africa, wealthy merchants converted to Islam while holding onto some traditional beliefs. Gave them legitimacy and recognition from Islamic states in Asia.
African Society and Cultural Development The diversity of African society by the eleventh century C.E. makes generalities difficult. There are some social forms and cultural patterns which appear widely, however.
African Society and Cultural Development Social Classes Societies in kingdoms, empires, and city states like Mali resembled the social structures in the settled, agricultural lands of Eurasia. In the smaller states and kin-based societies, however, kinship, sex and gender expectations, and age groupings determined social position. Slaves and slave trading – Source of wealth as it led to greater agricultural production. Eventually larger African societies began raiding other smaller societies and selling them into slavery in the Islamic World… This laid the foundation for the Atlantic Slave Trade.
African Society and Cultural Development African Religion Varied greatly among the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa Traditional African Beliefs Practical rather than theological Focused on morality and ethics Mostly monotheistic recognizing a divine male force generally regarded as omniscient and omnipotent Diviners consulted oracles for answers to life’s questions / problems. Some adopted Christianity and Islam, but maintained some of their traditional beliefs (syncretic faith)