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From Islamic Roots and Arab Custom, through Colonisation, to Current Contradictions under Globalisation.

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Presentation on theme: "From Islamic Roots and Arab Custom, through Colonisation, to Current Contradictions under Globalisation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 From Islamic Roots and Arab Custom, through Colonisation, to Current Contradictions under Globalisation

3 Islamic Work Values Arab/Bedouin Custom Current and Futue Caliphal Administration Colonisation

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5 Prophet Mohamed (PBUH/saws)  Qur’an  Sunna, Hadith

6  Life without work has no meaning  Engagement in economic activity an obligation  Honesty, justice in trade  Equitable, fair distribution of wealth (e.g., zakat)  Acquire skills & technology  Praises work as a virtue

7  Effort of the capable is obligatory  Cooperation & consultation  Social relations at work creates balance in life  Work source of independence, personal growth, self-respect, self-fulfillment  Measures intentions instead of results  Workplace governed by justice & generosity

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17 Emirati Traditional Governance Model: Egalitarian & Participatory (Left Side Field of Consensus) Leader/Shaikh Followers New Leader/Shaikh External Aggressors Transfer loyalty & territorial rights Defense against aggressors Accessi bility (Majlis) & account ability loyalty

18 White - Ummayyad Caliphate Black – Abbasid Caliphate Red - Hashemites Green – Fatimid Caliphate

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20  Caliph (Ar. Khalifa)  Khalifatu Rasulil-lah = Successor to the Messenger of God  Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Uthman, Ali (earliest, closest Companions of Prophet): simple and righteous lives, justice impartial; treatment of others kind, merciful; one with people - first among equals  Subsequently, Caliphs assumed manners of kings and emperors, spirit of equality diminished

21  Had only indirect influence on UAE area bedouin  Until Ottoman Empire (still only indirect)

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27  Moral character, visionary, caring  Father of the state & people  ‘Individual’ in community  Leadership inheres in personal qualities Shaikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (Dubai)

28  Consultative, conciliatory, consensus-seeking  Selected for competences  Oriented to public good and welfare  Bedouin traditions (plus Arabic, Muslim)  Grounded in kin system  Personal style  Personal networks (trust systems): appropriate Wasta  Orientation towards quality

29  Ruling families est. by UK colonisers  Federated state of 7 member Emirates  Meritocratic: the competent selected as Crown Prince  Consultative  Negotiating & navigating among powerful tribal/family representatives  Negotiating among member Emirates

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32  Al-Khalili, J. (2010) Pathfinders: Golden Age of Arabic Science Arabic Science  Crone, P. (2005) Medieval Islamic Political Thought  Freely, J. (2009) Aladdin’s Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the Islamic World Came to Europe Through the Islamic World  Lyons, J. (2009) The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilization Arabs Transformed Western Civilization  Masood, E. (2009) Science & Islam: A History  Morgan, M. (2007) Lost History: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists  O’Leary, D. (2003) Arabic Thought and Its Place in History History

33 Common Heritage: e.g., Plato, Aristotle (history, politics, sociology, cultural analysis) Arab Scholarship: e.g., Al-Farabi, Al- Ghazali, Ibn Khaldun, Islamic Humanist tradition Western trad. built upon Arabic: e.g., Renaissance scholars, Weber, Heidegger

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37 Colonial Heritage Tribal Traditions Post-Unification Shaikhdom (Shaikh Zayed)

38 Goffman Microinteractionist Metaphors Weberian Value- orientation & Ideal Typing Saidian Humanistic Critique of Orientalist Hegemony Bourdieuian Intellectual Field

39  Limited/eliminated trad’l functions of shaikhs: ability to wage war, deal with foreign powers, raid commercial boats, engage in slave trading, depose or murder of rulers  UK approval of successors, require agreement to treaties & conditions, accept British advice, protect UK interests

40  Selected shaikhs raised to unchallengable positions of power  Prevented tribes from getting rid of unsatisfactory shaikhs  Fixed territorial boundaries  Replaced consultation & consensus with British force, colonial hierarchy  [Bureaucratisation of traditional society]

41  Bombed the ports, disrupting trade  Restricted size of boats, diminishing pearl diving (only source of revenue)  Built no roads, no hospitals, no schools  Subsistence population sank further (i.e. camel milk and dates are not enough)  Significant rise in death rate

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47  First Settlement: 5,500 BCE  Pop. 2011: 7.2 Million (Expats 88.5%)  Urban: 88%  32 nd Human Develop Index (of 169)  Life Expectancy: 78.5 years  Literacy Rate: 93+%  Health & Educ (to BA) free  GDP per cap: 17 th world; 3 rd Middle East

48 They drive Are increasingly in workplace (glass ceiling?) Travel abroad (many regularly) 80% Emirati grad students Assertive in doctoral seminar UAE is (relatively) uxorious society

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52 UAE Admitted to UN 1971

53  Pop: 349,870,608  22 countries (Syria suspended)  Aims: Economic develop; dispute resolution; coordinate political aims

54  Kingdom of Bahrain  Kuwait  Sultanate of Oman  Qatar  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  United Arab Emirates

55 The New Imperialism (Jreisat, 1992)

56 Traditional Valuational (higher order) Affect Rational

57  Avoid responsibility & risk  Prefer stable life to rewarding, challenging work  Highly concerned with job security  Reluctant to delegate authority  Believe centralisation builds respect  Priority to friendships & personal consideration over org goals & performance  Higher commitment (than Westerners) to principles, but not in practice

58  Observation of rules & regs  Sociocentric & existential values versus conformity, manipulation, egocentric  Teamwork

59  Government job as entitlement  Favouritism (nepotism, influence peddling, favour seeking & giving)  [Uneasy translation from Tribal structures to “modern” nation state]

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62  Create prosperous, tolerant, well-governed state  Achieve highest international standards  Diversify economy  Sustainable development  Promote compromise, reason & dialogue regionally, internationally (diplomacy)  Assist developing countries (strong UN supporter)  Protect environment  [Integration of women into leadership]

63 Democratisation

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66  Concentrated, rapidly diversifying economy (hub, financial & industrial – light to heavy)  Deal with Western political & military designs for control & influence  Respond to declining work ethic with high consumption patterns  Huge costs in security & defence  Tensions between Islamic/Arabic values & “Western” values  Security, security, security

67  Provide labour opportunities for nationals (Brown & Lauder, p. 252)  90% foreign labour in UAE  Women > 50% university graduates; 80% of UAE in grad degrees  “Public ownership” of all development sectors (real estate, utilities, industry, etc.): tension with “laissez-faire capitalist” pressures & negative intl press  Drive high tech

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69  High % prof’l staff Western (not nec. highly qualified)  Assume Western models work unmodified  Much knowledge is outdated (see Ali)  Primary concern economic develop: 1.) economy funds develop; 2) globalisation market model NPM; 3) oil running out  Stress: leap from economic backwardness to high development (Gerfschenkron)

70 Complaints (Jreisat, 1992) Complexity 1. Poor conceptualisation 2. Faltering implementation 3. Political corruption 4. Govt ineffectiveness 5. Bureaucratic incompetence 6. Public nonparticipation 1. Sand to city in 40 years 2. Intensive rapid societal transition in every sense 3. Outdated and incompetent Westerners 4. High employee diversity 5. Loss of UAE culture 6. Geopolitical position & security issues

71 Almost exclusive use Western scholarship & curric dependency Almost exclusive use Western scholarship & curric dependency Knowledge transfer uni-directional Knowledge transfer uni-directional Emiratis not taught UAE history (“golemisation” of history & scholarly trad’s) Emiratis not taught UAE history (“golemisation” of history & scholarly trad’s) Arab scholars used to illustrate western adoption Arab scholars used to illustrate western adoption English replacement of Arabic (religious implications) English replacement of Arabic (religious implications) Globalised educ. strong market model: Hidden curric. of capitalism & consumerism Globalised educ. strong market model: Hidden curric. of capitalism & consumerism

72  Secular, ‘legal’, technical-rational principles  Anglo-Saxon norms  Efficiency, effectiveness  Sound decision-making  Impersonal hierarchy  Religious – grounded in Muslim principles  Arabic cultures  Service to society  Wisdom, judgment  Personal interaction, family connections

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75 Socio-cultural Impact Sovereignty Globalisation/ Commercialisa tion The “Reproductive” Role of Educational Institution

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77 Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre Design (Schumacher & Hadid)

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79 Dubai Islands: 43 → 600 miles coastline

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81 Necrocapitalism – dispossession modified to “social” or “cultural” death (Banerjee, 2008) Cultural & intellectual colony Commodified education & culture Reproduces foreign socio-cultural & educ’l structures, governance, responsibilities, roles, practices

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