2Umayyad Empire stretched from Spain to central Asia Administrative ReformsCaliph appointed governors to rule far-flung provincesGovernors ruled from strong garrison townsSpoils from victories helped finance Umayyad government
4Instituted a three-level tax system: 1) Muslims: paid zakat2) Muslim converts, considered mawali, paid higher tax than Muslims3) Non-Muslims paid highest tax, jizya (security tax)
5The Down FallMany devout Muslims opposed extravagant lifestyles of Umayyad rulersPersians resented secondary status in Umayyad empireAbbasids (led by Abbas) of Persia revolted against DamascusAfter defeating Umayyad armies, Abbasids took control of Muslim empire
7Rise of Abbasid PartyThe party traced its descent from Muhammad’s uncle, al-Abbas.Al-Abbas’ great great grandson, Abu al-Abbas led his forces against the Umayyads.Shi’a were his allies.Mawali (Islamic converts) also supported him to gain acceptance in the community of believers.Captured Umayyad capital in SyriaAt “Reconciliation Banquet” al-Abbas slaughtered remaining Umayyad family.
8Early Abbasid EraBegan to reject Shi’a and Malawi allies…and defended Sunni Islam.Built a centralized, absolutist imperial order.New capital: Baghdad “The Round City” (2km in diameter) on Tigris RiverBaghdad became the richest city in the world (only Constantinople came close)Sat on jeweled thrones. Had palaces and harems! Image of elitism was important.For more than a century, able to collect revenue and preserve law over much of the empire.
9Islamic Conversion and Mawali Acceptance Mass conversions to Islam were encouraged throughout the empire.Most converts were won over peacefully because of appeal of Islamic beliefs and advantages they enjoyed:- didn’t have to pay head tax- educational opportunities- jobs as traders, administrators, judges
10Economics of Dar al-Islam Town & Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion
11New Crops & Urban Growth Several factors led to strong internal economyLocationSize of empireBeliefs of IslamHajjView of merchants“People of the Book”Muslim merchants formed joint ventures with Christian and Jewish traders.Because each merchant had a different Sabbath, they could work 7 days/week.Merchants grew rich supplying cities with goods throughout the empire.
12New Crops & Urban Growth Fostered diffusion of crops & technologiesSugarcane, rice, eggplants, oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, cottonIrrigation, fertilization, crop rotationImpact = more planting seasons, increased food supplies, urban growth, wealthy merchant & landlord class, slave tradeCamel, camel saddle, compass, paper, astrolabe, triangular lateen sail, dhowsImpact = formation of hemispheric trading zoneMuch unskilled labor was left to slaves.Some slaves were able rise to positions of power and gain freedom (like what other empire?)Huge estates might have slaves, indentured servants or sharecroppers.
13Hemispheric Trading Zone Acting as merchants on Silk RoadsActing as merchants on Trans-Sahara RoutesActing as merchants on Indian OceanImpact: Interconnection b/t Africa, Europe, South Asia, Southeast Asia, China; Improved banking; New business forms that spread risksExample = Africa
15The First Flowering of Islamic Learning Early contributions from Abbasid were great mosques and palaces. Ex: Dome of the RockAdvances in religious, legal and philosophical discourse.Science and Math! Abbasid scholars preserved Greek works of medicine, algebra, geometry, astronomy, anatomy, and ethics.Arabic traders in India carried the Indian number system across Mediter. and into Northern Europe. These number systems became ESSENTIAL to Scientific Revolution in W. Europe.
16Global Connections: Early Islam & the World Abbasid Empire was the “go-between” for the ancient civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere…this role grew as Arab trade networks expanded.Islam pioneered patterns of organization and thinking that would affect human societies in major ways for centuries.5 Centuries = Spread of Islam played a dominant role in the Afro-Eurasian World.