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Chapter 12: Cross- Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Standard: 2.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Cross- Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Standard: 2.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12: Cross- Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Standard: 2.1

2 My favorite Han movie ever http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmFlgCB9F2Qhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmFlgCB9F2Qhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmFlgCB9F2Q

3 Zhang Qian Father of the Silk Road Crossed N. of Tibet into the Ferghana Valley in 128 BCECrossed N. of Tibet into the Ferghana Valley in 128 BCE Captive of the Xiongnu for 10 yearsCaptive of the Xiongnu for 10 years Sent by Emperor Han WudiSent by Emperor Han Wudi Opened the silk road through informationOpened the silk road through information

4 Challenging how we think… Assume that sources are correct and Zhang Qian’s mission took him in search of trade to the west.Assume that sources are correct and Zhang Qian’s mission took him in search of trade to the west. Why do we learn in our history textbooks that the East, specifically China is historically closed off to foreigners?Why do we learn in our history textbooks that the East, specifically China is historically closed off to foreigners?

5 Where did it go? What was it?

6 What 2 things made the silk road a possibility?

7 Learning with Primary Source Documents: Working with your assigned group read the document and highlight the following:Working with your assigned group read the document and highlight the following: Types of items tradedTypes of items traded Who is trading the itemsWho is trading the items Special directions for diplomats/merchantsSpecial directions for diplomats/merchants Prepare to share a synopsis of your document with the class as we discuss what people who traveled the road were writing about.Prepare to share a synopsis of your document with the class as we discuss what people who traveled the road were writing about.

8 Hellenistic Trade Seleucids and Ptolemies both maintained land and sea routesSeleucids and Ptolemies both maintained land and sea routes In Egypt the Ptolemies built up Alexandria into the greatest sea port of the time to support the tradeIn Egypt the Ptolemies built up Alexandria into the greatest sea port of the time to support the trade Egyptian, Indian, Roman, mariners learned to use the monsoon winds in the Indian oceanEgyptian, Indian, Roman, mariners learned to use the monsoon winds in the Indian ocean

9 What was traded on the Silk Road? Better Question, what wasn’t!Better Question, what wasn’t! China’s most valuable export – silkChina’s most valuable export – silk Created Oases townsCreated Oases towns Encompassed sea lanesEncompassed sea lanes Required in-depth knowledge of trade and monsoon windsRequired in-depth knowledge of trade and monsoon winds

10 Why were spices such a big deal? CondimentsCondiments anesthetics,anesthetics, DrugsDrugs AphrodisiacsAphrodisiacs PerfumesPerfumes Magic potionsMagic potions

11 India – Man in the Middle Emissaries traveled to Rome and China and received Roman and Chinese emissariesEmissaries traveled to Rome and China and received Roman and Chinese emissaries Acted as expert marinersActed as expert mariners Romans set up a few colonies in IndiaRomans set up a few colonies in India Mauryan & Guptan empires provided regional stabilityMauryan & Guptan empires provided regional stability

12 How far did merchants go? No specific number but generally travel was accomplished in “legs”No specific number but generally travel was accomplished in “legs” Individuals became expert merchants/travelers/Individuals became expert merchants/travelers/ seamen on certain routes seamen on certain routes

13 Camels… who knew? Dromedary CamelDromedary Camel From Middle East & N. AfricaFrom Middle East & N. Africa 1 hump1 hump Bactrian CamelBactrian Camel From China & MongoliaFrom China & Mongolia 2 humps2 humps

14 Look it up Name the Ruling dynasty’s of China in order.Name the Ruling dynasty’s of China in order. First person with the correct answer gets 5 points extra credit on the next quiz.First person with the correct answer gets 5 points extra credit on the next quiz.

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16 How did the Han rule? 206 BCE206 BCE 24 successive rulers24 successive rulers Capital @ Chang’anCapital @ Chang’an Feudalism w/centralized hierarchy ( Jun – similar to a state - each had a governor, military commander, and an imperial inspector )Feudalism w/centralized hierarchy ( Jun – similar to a state - each had a governor, military commander, and an imperial inspector ) Significant population growth (maybe triple!)Significant population growth (maybe triple!) Paper, the rudder, compass, porcelain, seismograph 365 day calendarPaper, the rudder, compass, porcelain, seismograph 365 day calendar Empress Lu Zhi (1 st emporer) ruled through her infant son for 16 yearsEmpress Lu Zhi (1 st emporer) ruled through her infant son for 16 years Civil service exams on Confucian principalsCivil service exams on Confucian principals Wu Ti ( 141-87 BCE ) – greatest emperorWu Ti ( 141-87 BCE ) – greatest emperor Larger than Rome Repelled the Xiongnu Sent Zhang Qian to the Xiognu to open up the Silk road Adopted Confucianism Strong central government Ruled w/the Mandate of HeavenRuled w/the Mandate of Heaven Great wall of ChinaGreat wall of China

17 Highlights of confucianism Hierarchy led by virtuous malesHierarchy led by virtuous malesFatherSonMotherDaughter Specific roles – liSpecific roles – li Adhering to one’s li ensures stability by eliminating role stressAdhering to one’s li ensures stability by eliminating role stress

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19 Spread of Buddhism & Hinduism Where did Buddhism & Hinduism originate?Where did Buddhism & Hinduism originate? How would it have spread to people in Iran, China, etc?How would it have spread to people in Iran, China, etc? What helped propel Buddhism from merchants and cosmopolitan city dwellers to regular people?What helped propel Buddhism from merchants and cosmopolitan city dwellers to regular people? Rate the importance of India’s religious contribution and explain your rating.Rate the importance of India’s religious contribution and explain your rating.

20 Spread of christianity Initially persecuted by the Romans, later embraced Initially persecuted by the Romans, later embraced By 2 nd & 3 rd centuries Christians had fanned out over Roman roads to prostheletize By 2 nd & 3 rd centuries Christians had fanned out over Roman roads to prostheletize 3 rd to 7 th century Christianity was one of the major religions of the middle east 3 rd to 7 th century Christianity was one of the major religions of the middle east Asian christians – ascetic tradition Asian christians – ascetic tradition By 5 th century there was a parting between Nestorians (opposed Jesus as divine) and Mediterranean (Jesus divinity sacred tennant of faith) By 5 th century there was a parting between Nestorians (opposed Jesus as divine) and Mediterranean (Jesus divinity sacred tennant of faith) Initially persecuted by the Romans, later embraced Initially persecuted by the Romans, later embraced By 2 nd & 3 rd centuries Christians had fanned out over Roman roads to prostheletize By 2 nd & 3 rd centuries Christians had fanned out over Roman roads to prostheletize 3 rd to 7 th century Christianity was one of the major religions of the middle east 3 rd to 7 th century Christianity was one of the major religions of the middle east Asian christians – ascetic tradition Asian christians – ascetic tradition By 5 th century there was a parting between Nestorians (opposed Jesus as divine) and Mediterranean (Jesus divinity sacred tennant of faith) By 5 th century there was a parting between Nestorians (opposed Jesus as divine) and Mediterranean (Jesus divinity sacred tennant of faith)

21 Spread of Manichaeism Form of Zoroastrianism influenced by Christianity & BuddhismForm of Zoroastrianism influenced by Christianity & Buddhism Prophet for all humanity-syncretic blendProphet for all humanity-syncretic blend Surpressed by Sasanid rulersSurpressed by Sasanid rulers Exterminated in the Mediterannean in the 5 th & 6 th centuriesExterminated in the Mediterannean in the 5 th & 6 th centuries Maintained along the silk road much longerMaintained along the silk road much longer

22 Think this through – make a bullet list of your ideas If all the major religions were propagated and disseminated along the silk road, what does that tell us about the merchants, tradesmen, and travellers that traversed its paths?

23 The spread of epidemic disease LIKELY culprits LIKELY culprits Measles, smallpox, bubonic plague Measles, smallpox, bubonic plague Augustus took a census and counted 60 million 1 AD Augustus took a census and counted 60 million 1 AD Rome By 400 CE. 40 million Rome By 400 CE. 40 million China: 200 CE 60 million China: 200 CE 60 million China: 600 CE 45 million China: 600 CE 45 million Look it Up w/a partner At what rate would a normally increasing population rise in 300 years? Compare that to Roman #’s and China’s #’s. What does that tell you about the severity of pathogens carried along the silk road?

24 Why the Han fell Infighting coupled with repeated nomadic invasionsInfighting coupled with repeated nomadic invasions Elites used land ownership to oppress the poor, the weak central government meant the local warlords were more powerful and could do as they wishedElites used land ownership to oppress the poor, the weak central government meant the local warlords were more powerful and could do as they wished Epidemics and poverty caused the yellow turban rebellion among othersEpidemics and poverty caused the yellow turban rebellion among others Han generals usurped authorityHan generals usurped authority 8000 soldiers, 130 chariots, 520 horses, 150 cavalry horses!

25 Post han china Northern invaders became “Chinese”Northern invaders became “Chinese” Confucian traditions lost credibility because they hadn’t workedConfucian traditions lost credibility because they hadn’t worked Rise of Daoism & BuddhismRise of Daoism & Buddhism Daoism (salvation, health, immortality through potions) Buddhism (popular with nomads) Buddhist temples helped the poor giving them enormous popularity

26 Fall of the Roman empire Barracks EmperorsBarracks Emperors Too big to succeedToo big to succeed EpidemicsEpidemics Diocletian’s solution… 2 roman empires, easier to manage?Diocletian’s solution… 2 roman empires, easier to manage?

27 Constantine Came to power after a huge struggle when Diocletian diedCame to power after a huge struggle when Diocletian died Sign in the sky, myth or truth?Sign in the sky, myth or truth? Same administrative problems partially spurred on by epidemicsSame administrative problems partially spurred on by epidemics

28 Germanic invasion

29 The Hun invasion Different type of invasion because the goal was simply pillage, not a takeover of government or settlementDifferent type of invasion because the goal was simply pillage, not a takeover of government or settlement They pushed even more Germanic tribes deeper into Roman territoriesThey pushed even more Germanic tribes deeper into Roman territories This finished off the western Roman empire, but not the Eastern empireThis finished off the western Roman empire, but not the Eastern empire

30 How things change! Romans mixed with Germanic people created medieval EuropeansRomans mixed with Germanic people created medieval Europeans 312 Edict of Milan – why is it significant?312 Edict of Milan – why is it significant? Constantine converted to ChristianityConstantine converted to Christianity Christianity began to get more street cred when Augustine converged it w/Greek Stoicism & Plato’s worksChristianity began to get more street cred when Augustine converged it w/Greek Stoicism & Plato’s works

31 The Canon Christianity was standardized and organized in Eastern Roman territories as well as in Western territories 5 bishops/patriarchs 5 bishops/patriarchs Lesser bishops Lesser bishops Council @ Nicaea & Chalcedon Council @ Nicaea & Chalcedon The Pope, who was the first? The Pope, who was the first? Christianity was standardized and organized in Eastern Roman territories as well as in Western territories 5 bishops/patriarchs 5 bishops/patriarchs Lesser bishops Lesser bishops Council @ Nicaea & Chalcedon Council @ Nicaea & Chalcedon The Pope, who was the first? The Pope, who was the first?

32 http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=vfe-eNq- Qyg&list=PLmBtWmBUeDcoc_Y 6MPDaSiIjiSU5_iClG http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=vfe-eNq- Qyg&list=PLmBtWmBUeDcoc_Y 6MPDaSiIjiSU5_iClG Crash course AP World History – Silk Road


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