Presentation on theme: "Camel –A versatile animal Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security In order to combat with this issue, there is need."— Presentation transcript:
Camel –A versatile animal Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products.
Types of camel Dromedary Bactrian Dromedary Bactrian
Camel in Pakistan In Pakistan camel population attain one million head with almost 20% of lactating camel produces around 0.6 million ton of milk annually (Raziq et al, 2008). Such a huge amount of milk is not well documented and never channelized.
Camel breeds in Pakistan Balochistan: Brahvi, Kachhi, Kharani, Lassi, Makrani, Pishin and Rodbari NWFP: Gaddi, Ghulmani, Khader and Maya Punjab: Bagri (Booja), Brela (Thalocha), Campbelpuri and Marecha Sindh: Dhatti, Kharai, Larri (Sindhi) and Sakrai
Camel Population World wide camel population 19 million Half camel population is in horn of Africa Pakistan camel population About 1 m Balochistan 37% Punjab33% Sindh 23% NWFP 7%
District wise distribution of Camel Camel-A versatile animal Bahwalapur 11328 Bhakkar 19339 Rajanpur 18338 Mianwali 8796 Layyah 16344 Khushab 8594 Jhang 8289 Attock 8443 DG Khan 11745
Major breeds of Camel in Punjab Milk- Barella Dual- Marrecha
Characteristics of major camel breeds of Punjab Marrecha camel is also known as Bekaneri camel in Rajasthan India. This breed of camel is well adapted to the sandy desert and is well fit for working in desert ecosystems. It is estimated that these animals can travel 100 to 125 Km a day at a high speed of 20-25 Km per hour. This breed is also used for load carrying. The coat color varies from light sandy to dark blackish. Female she camel can give milk up to 10 liters a day.
Marketing of Camel Milk and Meat Milk and meat are the principal products of the camel. The camel milk produced in the far-off mountainious and desert areas cannot reach the urban markets and is utilized locally. However, camel milk is sold in big cities as pure milk, or mixed with milk of cows and buffaloes, especially when the supply of cows and buffaloes milk does not meet the market demand (Yaqoob and Nawaz,2007).
Meat is usually a by-product of a camel system and the demand for camel meat appears to be increasing among societies not herding camels that come mainly from old males and females that have served usefully in other functions in earlier life. Only a limited number of castrated males are raised especially for slaughter. The camel meat annually produced in Pakistan is 50,000 tons valued at Rs. 250 million (Khan et al., 2003).
Camel Breeding and Research Station, Rakh Mahni, District Bhakkar Establishment 2004-05 to 2008-09 Cost Rs. 187.032 Million Total area 9173 Acres Main Objective: To explore the productive and reproductive aspects of camel
Original Cost :Rs. 153.193 million 1 st Revised Cost:Rs.169.746 million 2 nd Revised Cost:Rs.187.032 million Gestation Period:60 months Year 2004-05 to 2008-09 A.IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE No institution is available in Pakistan to undertake research on camel. Camel Converts lower quality desert vegetation into milk and meat. Export potential to Middle East countries not explored Very little basic research information is available on camel. B.RATIONALE
Physical Target and Achievements ParticularsTargetsAchievements Civil Work Office BlockCompletedOffice Block Four labsCompletedFour labs GaragesCompletedGarages StoreCompletedStore Service stationCompletedService station WorkshopCompletedWorkshop Two Residences (BS-18)CompletedTwo Residences (BS-18) Three Residences (BS-16,17)CompletedThree Residences (BS-16,17) Eighteen Residences (BS-1-14)Building under finishing phase Eighteen Residences (BS-1-14) Overhead Residences (20000 gallons)CompletedOverhead Residences (20000 gallons) Electric connection WAPDA Mahni 3 KmCompletedElectric connection WAPDA Mahni 3 Km Subserviable pump i.e. boring of tubwellCompletedSubserviable pump i.e. boring of tubwell Approach road (5 km)CompletedApproach road (5 km)
Laboratories Reproduction Physiology Breeding and Genetics Nutrition Milk/Meat
General Information of camel at CBRS Camel Strength Bulls 5 She-camels 68 Male Young stock 4 Female Young stock 16 Male sucklers 25 Female sucklers 21 Total 139 Fertility 25.8%
General Information - Camel Herd Mortality 1.9 % Marrecha Camel- Productive Traits Studied at CBRS Birth weight 40 kg Weaning weight 70 kg Adult weight 650 kg Milk yield 3000 lit (410 days) Calving interval 710 days Milk composition is also studied
Research Work Completed With CBRS (Under Publication) Identification and botanical classification of desert plants and camel fodder in surroundings of camel breeding and research station, Rakh Mahni. Hormonal biomarker with reference to lactation and pregnancy in camels. Hormonal stress biomarker of pregnant and non pregnant camels.
Research Work Completed With CBRS (Under Publication) Hematological profile of camels: Influence of pregnancy and stress. Influence of lactation and pregnancy on milk composition of female camel. Prevalence of Surra (trypanosomiasis) and relative efficacy of two different treatments. The analysis of soil, plant, animal relationship with reference to mineral nutrients.
Ongoing Projects Serum enzymes and hormonal profile of Mareecha camel during rutting season. Semen collection by artificial vagina and lector- ejaculator in camels. Effect of reproductive hormones in induction of ovulation in female camels. Biochemical indices of male and female camels during breeding and non-breeding season.
Abstracts (2nd ISOCARD Conference.12-14 March, 2009, Djerba, Tunisia) Milk composition and enzymes profile of female camel (Camelus dromedarius) injected with oxytocin. Dynamics of cystic fluid, serum biochemicals, amino acid and mineral profile in Echinococcus granulosus affected camels (Camelus dromedarius). Serum biochemical health parameters status of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in different physiological conditions.
Abstracts ( 2nd ISOCARD Conference.12-14 March, 2009, Djerba, Tunisia) Biomarkers of health and mineral status in pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius). Effect of repeated doses of oxytocin on the lactoperoxidase system of milk in female camels (Camelus dromedarius). Relationship study of mineral status with reference to soil, water, serum, urine and faeces at different physiological stages in camels (Camelus dromedarius).
Suggestions and Recommendations Collaborative research with CBRS and other academic institutes mainly the agriculture universities. Registration of camel herds Establishment of Camel Health Centre (Cholistan and Rakh Mahni) with main focus on Surra and Mange Selection and application of modern breeding techniques Organized marketing
Physical Target and Achievements ParticularsTargetsAchievements Purchase of Camel8070 Installation of Tubewell (Engine)22 Installation of Tubewell (electric driven)22 Installation of Mechanical Weigh bridge(1000 kg)11 Installation of Mechanical Weight bridge (500 kg)22 Installation of Mechanical Weight bridge (2000 kg)11 Construction of paca water course7000 meters7500 meters Research Trials--11 Research Publications--6
Bottlenecks Shortage of technical staff Lack of basic facilities Insecurity of farm staff Illicit occupation of farm land Interference into the farm affairs No special/hard area allowance
PROPOSED ACTION PLAN FOR CAMEL BREEDING IN PUNJAB OBJECTIVESTRATEGYPROGRAMTARGET/ TIME FRAME ACTION BY ROLE OF STAKEHOLDER Improving Production Selective Breeding Registration of Camel herds 20 herds in 1 st year followed by 5/ annum DLF CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS : Registration and selective breeding at Mahni SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration and assistance in registration. Population recording300 Camel 1 st year followed by 40/ annum DLF CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS : monthly recording of camel CB&RS and in field SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration and monitoring in filed recording Identification of camel breeds. Recording production would be done monthly for all Camel of the farmers. DLF CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: Identification Camel. SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration in Identification of Camel breed Establishing Progeny testing programme Registered camel herds will be added to the existing program DLF DBI CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: Implementation of PTP at CB&RS Mahani in camel nucleus and in the field. DBI: Collaboration in semen collection and storage. SUPT. CB&RS: collaboration in selection of breeding camel and semen of camel.
OBJECTIVESTRATEGYPROGRAMTARGET/ TIME FRAME ACTION BY ROLE OF STAKEHOLDER Improving in Reproductiv e Efficiency Reducing age at first calving and reduction in calving interval Reproductive performance Government herd and registered private herds through improved extension services. DLF DBI CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: Reducing age at 1 st calving and calving interval leading to better reproductive efficiency in camel and provision of breeding management package through field staff. DBI: Collaboration in extension service. SUPT. CB&RS : Collaboration in extension service Field sexual health programme Private registered herds through improved extension service DLF DBI CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: postpartum reproductive management. DBI: Collaboration in extension service. SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration in extension service. Feeding and Management Private registered herds through improved extension service DLF DBI CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: postpartum reproductive management. DBI: Collaboration in extension service. SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration in extension service.
ObjectiveStrategyProgramTarget/ time frame Action by Role of stakeholder Breed Improvemen t Maintenance of Nucleus herds Establishment of breed specific herds in public and private sector Identification of camel breed herds/ farms DLF CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: Maintenance of camel nucleus herd through better feeding and management at Mahani SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration in identification camel breeds. Expansion of Mareecha Camel Organizing competitions in Camel shows Cash awards and other incentives DLF CB&RS SUPT. CB&RS: Conduction of camel shows to highlight interest of the breeders of camel. SUPT. CB&RS: Collaboration in Camel shows.