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Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Islam SECTION 2The Arab Empire SECTION 3Arab Contributions CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 22 discusses the rise of Islam and its central role in the creation of the Arab Empire.  –Section 1 describes the rise of Islam.  –Section 2 discusses the formation of the Arab Empire and the spread of Islam.  –Section 3 describes the Arab contributions to world civilizations.

6 5 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives explain the teachings of Muhammad.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: discuss the religious beliefs held by Muslims.  describe how Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula.  describe Arab contributions to science, mathematics, medicine, and the arts. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 6 Chapter Focus 2 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 331 of your textbook. How Islam developed around the teachings of Muhammad  What religious beliefs are held by Muslims  How Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula  What early Islamic life was like  What the Arab Empire contributed to science, mathematics, medicine, and the arts

8 7 Madina (Yathrib)  Damascus  Baghdad Places to Locate mosque  imam  hajj  alchemists  Terms to Learn Chapter Focus 3 pillars of faith  Muhammad  al-Idrisi  al-Rāzi  Omar Khayyám  Ibn Khaldun  People to Know Makkah  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.

9 8 Between the northeast coast of Africa and central Asia lies theBetween the northeast coast of Africa and central Asia lies the Arabian Peninsula. The people who live there are known as Arabs. At one time, most were Bedouins. They were herders who roamed the desert in search of grass and water for their camels, goats, and sheep. They lived in tents woven from camel or goat hair.live there are known as Arabs. At one time, most were Bedouins Bedouin warriors during the 600s raided other peoples and fought one another over pastures and springs. They valued their camels and swords above all else. They enjoyed poetry and music. They believed in many gods.pastures In the 600s, a religion called Islam began in the mountainous area of western Arabia known as the Hejaz. Within 100 years, an Arab empire based on Islamic beliefs had developed. It controlled an area larger than that of the Roman Empire.600sArab Chapter Focus 4 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.

10 End of Chapter Focus

11 10 Section 1-1 Islam “Islam” is an Arabic word that means “the act of submitting, or giving oneself over, to the will of God.”  An Arab merchant named Muhammad, who came to be known as the prophet of Allah, founded the Islamic faith.  Islam shook the foundations of Byzantium and Persia, the two most powerful civilizations of the time. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 331 of your textbook.

12 11 Section 1-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By the middle of the 500s, the three major towns of Yathrib, Ta’ if, and Makkah had developed in the Hejaz.  Arab pilgrims, or travelers to a religious shrine, came there to worship in Arabia’s holiest shrine, the Ka’bah. Makkah (Mecca)

13 12 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 570, Muhammad was born to a widow of a respectable clan in Makkah.  The drinking, gambling, and corruption in Makkah troubled Muhammad, so he spent much time alone in a cave outside the city, thinking and fasting.  Muhammad concluded that there was only one God, Allah, the same god as the God of the Jews and the Christians.  The rich leaders of Makkah began to feel threatened and, as a result, started persecuting Muhammad and his followers. Muhammad

14 13 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Muhammad and several hundred of his followers fled from Makkah to Yathrib (later Madina) in 622.  In Madina, Muhammad gave the people a government that united them and made them proud of their new faith.  But, the people of Makkah invaded Madina several times. Muhammad (cont.)

15 14 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 628, Muhammad signed a peace treaty with the people of Makkah, which they violated in 630, leading Muhammad and his companions to triumphantly enter their home city, Makkah, for a peaceful conquest.  In 632 Muhammad died. Muhammad (cont.)

16 15 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Quran is written in Arabic and describes the pillars of faith, or the five duties all Muslims must fulfill.  The first duty is the confession of faith.  The second duty deals with prayer; some of which are recited at a mosque and led by a prayer leader called an imam.  The third duty has to do with the giving of zakah, or charity.  The fourth duty deals with fasting.  The fifth duty involves a pilgrimage to Makkah, called the hajj. The Quran

17 16 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment According to Muslim tradition, what caused Muhammad to begin his preachings? The angel Gabriel told him to. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

18 17 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What does the Quran say will happen after death? All who fulfill their duties will go to Paradise. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

19 18 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did the rise of Islam have on Byzantium and Persia? It shook their foundations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

20 19 The five duties are: confession of faith, prayers five times a day, giving of zakah, fasting during daylight hours of Ramadan, and pilgrimage to Makkah. Section 1-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 336 of your textbook, and use it to summarize the five pillars of faith. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

21 End of Section 1

22 21 Section 2-1 Section 2 begins on page 336 of your textbook. The Arab Empire When Muhammad died in 632, a group of Muslims chose a new leader whom they called khalifa, or caliph, which means “successor.”

23 22 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and close friend.  As the next caliphs ruled from Madina and kept in close touch with the people, they were called the Rightly Guided Caliphs.  The Rightly Guided Caliphs honored Muhammad’s wish to carry Islam to other peoples and sent warriors into Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, and North Africa. The Rightly Guided Caliphs

24 23 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Throughout all these places, the Arabs were victorious because Islam united them in striving for a common goal, which they considered holy.  The Arab way of treating the people they conquered also contributed to their success. The Rightly Guided Caliphs (cont.)

25 24 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law and the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, was killed in 661.  The new caliph moved the capital from Madina to Damascus and founded the Umayyad Dynasty.  The Umayyads ruled more like kings than religious leaders.  However, the Umayyads had social and economic troubles that, in the end, led to their downfall. The Umayyads

26 25 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Muslims themselves divided into two groups, the Shi’ah and the Sunni.  After a while, war broke out between the Umayyads and a group of Muslims called Abbasids.  In 750, the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads and became the new rulers of the Arab Empire. The Umayyads (cont.)

27 26 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Abbasids ruled the Arab Empire from 750 to 1258; their first 100 years was known as the Golden Age of Islam.  Under the Abbasids, all that remained of Arab influence was the Arabic language and the Islamic religion.  The Abbasids created the government post of vizier, or chief adviser between the throne and the people.  The Abbasids made Baghdad one of the major trading centers of the world. The Abbasids

28 27 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Life in the empire changed as advanced farming methods were employed.  The empire soon became too large for one caliph, and it began to break up into independent kingdoms.  In 836, the caliph moved to a new capital city called Samarra.  In 945, the Persians took control of Baghdad. The Abbasids (cont.)

29 28 In 710, they invaded Spain, defeated the West Goths, who had taken the country from the Romans, and set up a kingdom that allowed religious freedom.  For the next 400 years, a rich culture flourished in Spain.  During this time, Jews traveled to and traded in every part of the Arab Empire and beyond. Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Muslim Arabs who conquered North Africa intermarried with the Berbers and became known as Moors.  The Golden Age of Muslim Spain

30 29 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Islam was born in a society where men could have unlimited numbers of wives and the killing of female children was common.  Islam attempted to correct this situation.  Both men and women were obligated to seek knowledge.  Reciting and memorizing the Quran was an important requirement in education.  The mosques served as neighborhood schools. Islamic Life

31 30 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What were some of the accomplishments of the Umayyads? They reorganized the government, minted money, set up postal routes, repaired irrigation canals, and encouraged the arts. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

32 31 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment How did the Arab Empire change under the Abbasids? Baghdad was built, the post of vizier was created, trade developed, and interest in Greek science and philosophy grew. Arab artisans produced luxury goods. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

33 32 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Drawing a Conclusion Why were the years from 710 to around 300 called the Golden Age of Muslim Spain? Answers will vary. A rich culture flourished during this period. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

34 33 Sample answer: before–could not inherit property from parents, killing of a female child common, few rights; after–entitled to half of husband’s wealth, right to an inheritance, discouraged practice of marrying multiple wives Section 2-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 342 of your textbook, and use it to show how the teachings of Islam tried to improve the treatment of women in Arab society. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

35 End of Section 2

36 35 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3 begins on page 342 of your textbook. Arab Contributions Between the 770s and the 1300s, Arab scholars helped preserve much of the learning of the ancient world and made many other contributions to the modern world.  Many Arab scientists, known as alchemists, tried to turn base metals, such as tin, iron, and lead, into gold and silver.  Arab astronomers studied the heavens, named stars, described solar eclipses, and proved the moon’s effects on tides and the oceans.

37 36 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Arab Contributions (cont.) The astronomer-geographer al-ldrisi drew the first accurate map of the world.  Arab mathematicians invented algebra and borrowed the numerals 0-9 from Gupta mathematicians.  The Arabs gave much to the field of medicine, setting up the world’s first school of pharmacy, opening the world’s first drugstores, and organizing medical clinics.  The Persian doctor al-Razi discovered differences between measles and smallpox.

38 37 Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Arabs also made many contributions to the arts.  The Persian poet Omar Khayyám’s Rubáiyát is considered one of the finest poems ever written.  Islamic art is distinct and full of color.  Much of what is known about this time comes from Arabs, such as Ibn Khaldun, who wrote down the history of Islam. Arab Contributions (cont.)

39 38 Section 3- Assessment 1 How did the use of the Arabic language promote learning? It helped unite scholars throughout the Arab Empire. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

40 39 Section 3- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What are two of the best-known Arab writings? Two of the best-known writings are The Arabian Nights and Rubáiyát. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

41 40 Section 3- Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Drawing Conclusions Do you think the numerals 0 through 9 should be called Arabic or Gupta numerals? Explain. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

42 41 Section 3- Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 344 of your textbook, and use it to show Arab contributions to science, math, and the arts. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

43 End of Section 3

44 43 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide Muhammad was born in Makkah in 570.  In 613, Muhammad began to preach that the only god is Allah. This was the start of the Islamic religion.  In 622, Muhammad and his followers went from Makkah to Yathrib, where they organized a new government and army.  In 630, Muhammad led his followers into Makkah and dedicated the Ka’ bah to Allah. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

45 44 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 631, delegates throughout Arabia declared their loyalty to Muhammad and their belief in teachings such as the five pillars.  After Muhammad’s death in 632, his followers chose a new leader, known as a caliph, and began building a huge empire.  In 661, the capital of the Arab Empire was moved to Damascus and the Umayyad Dynasty began.

46 45 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 750, the Abbasids took control of the Arab Empire and concentrated on trade rather than war.  The Moors in Spain combined Arab and Jewish cultures and allowed religious freedom.  The Arabs made many contributions to modern civilization, especially in science, math, and the arts.

47 End of Chapter Summary

48 47 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea How did Bedouins earn a living? They earned their living as herders and traders. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

49 48 Chapter Assessment 2 Why did Muhammad begin to spend time alone in a cave outside Makkah? He began to spend time in a cave because he was troubled by the corruption in Makkah. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

50 49 Chapter Assessment 3 Why did Makkah’s leaders persecute Muhammad and his followers? They were afraid of losing money because fewer pilgrims would come to Makkah. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

51 50 Chapter Assessment 4 What is the Islamic Creed? The Islamic Creed is a confession of faith stating “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet.” Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

52 51 Chapter Assessment 5 In what direction do Muslims face when they pray? They pray in the direction that points them toward Makkah. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

53 52 Chapter Assessment 6 Understanding the Main Idea What does the Quran promise all believers who fulfill their duties? They will go to Paradise. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

54 53 Chapter Assessment 7 What brought about the downfall of the Umayyad Dynasty? The downfall of the Umayyad Dynasty was caused by conquered people who became Muslim who felt they were unfairly treated, and by the division of Muslims into the Shi’ ah and the Sunni. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

55 54 Chapter Assessment 8 What did the name “Arab” mean under the Abbasids? The name referred to any subject who spoke Arabic. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

56 55 Chapter Assessment 9 What discoveries did Arab doctors make? They discovered the circulation of the blood, the differences between measles and small pox, and that tuberculosis is contagious. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

57 56 Chapter Assessment 10 What role did religion play in Arab life? Religion brought pilgrims to Makkah (which helped its economy), united Muslims, and set guidelines for the way Muslims lived. Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

58 57 Chapter Assessment 11 How did the Moorish kingdom in Spain show it had been influenced by different cultures? Many groups lived there; and Muslims, Jews, and Christians studied medicine and philosophy together. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

59 58 Chapter Assessment 12 Which Arab contribution do you think has most affected other civilizations? Explain your choice. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

60 59 Chapter Assessment 13 What parts of life in the Arab Empire would you have liked? What parts would you have disliked? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

61 60 Chapter Assessment 14 Location Islam spread across a wide area, as seen on the map on page 337 of your textbook. It included most of the area from the western edge of the Mediterranean Sea to the eastern shores of the Arabian Sea. What longitude and latitude lines mark the approximate location of this area? The area spanned from about 45° N to 25° N and 5° W to 65° E. Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

62 61 Chapter Assessment 15 What is false about the following: A man and woman move to Madina in 613, the year Muhammad began preaching. That year, called the Anno Hijrah, they joined the thousands who supported Muhammad.

63 End of Chapter Assessment

64 63 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

65 64 Global Chronology Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 622 A.D. Muhammad flees from Makkah to Yathrib 570 A.D. Muhammad born 750 A.D. Abbasids become rulers of Arab Empire 710 A.D. Moors invade Spain 1290 A.D. Ottoman Dynasty founded in Asia Minor

66 65 Muhammad is one of the great figures in world history. His revelations and teachings form the basis of Islam, a faith that now claims more than one billion followers. While living in Yathrib (Madina), he established a model for future Islamic states in which religious leaders oversee government. His appeal for Islamic unity helped Muhammad to extend his Islamic state to the entire Arabian Peninsula. People in History 1.1 Muhammad 570 A.D A.D. Prophet of Islam

67 66 Fun Facts 3.1 Europeans resisted the use of Arabic numerals well into the 1400s. An Italian bookkeeping manual insisted that roman numerals “cannot be falsified as easily as those of the new art of computation, of which one can, with ease, make one out of another, such as turning the zero into a 6 or a 9.” Arabic Numerals

68 67 Then & Now Contents 1 Calendars The Quran Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

69 68 Then & Now 1.1 The Islamic calendar, started in 622, is a lunar calendar with 354 days divided into 12 months. The Muslim Era, which counts years from the Hijrah, is used officially in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf states. Even in Muslim countries that officially use the Gregorian calendar, many people follow the Muslim calendar at home. Calendars

70 69 Then & Now 1.2 As Muhammad preached, his followers wrote down or memorized his teachings. After Muhammad’s death, his successor Abu Bakr ordered Muslims to retrieve those teachings wherever they could be found. It took 20 years to compile the teachings into the Quran, the Muslim scriptures followed today. The Quran

71 70 Then & Now Contents 2 The Bazaar Cordoba Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

72 71 Then & Now 2.1 Muslim merchants traded their wares in the bazaar, originally the term for Persian public markets. The name came to be used for colorful outdoor marketplaces throughout the Middle East and North Africa. In English today, bazaar means a store that sells many kinds of goods. The Bazaar

73 72 Then & Now 2.2 By the 900s, Cordoba,the capital of Muslim Spain, was the largest city in Europe and a cultural center for scholars, musicians, and artisans. Cordoba was known especially for its fine leatherwork, woven silk and brocades, and gold and silver jewelry. Visitors to Cordoba today can still see the Great Mosque, completed about 976. Cordoba

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