Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper How do we know this is a loanword? Latin Loans: dating Indo-European k – p - r Latin cuprum Germanic h – f - r Grimm's Law
Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper How do we know this is a loanword into early Germanic? Latin Loans: dating Englishcopper GermanKupfer Dutchkoper Dan - Norkobber Swedishkoppar Icelandickopar
Latin in Gaul changed -pr- to -vr- in 7th cent. - Modern French cuivre So it must have come into Germanic earlier than the 7th cent. Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper How do we know this is a loanword into early Germanic? Latin Loans: dating
1. Latin Loans: into Germanic vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp dagur-dögum, krati krötum, land lönd i-mutation: u – mutation: dagur degi, fótur fæti
1. Latin Loans: into Germanic vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp Do not confuse with: vowel gradation, ablaut, hljóðskipti sing sang song bjóða beið buðum boðið
1. Latin Loans: into Germanic vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp i-mutation occurred before the earliest extant records of OE in 6th cent. words that underwent this change must have arrived in English before that date.
æ > e a > eá > ǽ o > eó > é u > yú > ý ea > ie > yéa > íe > ý eo > ie > yéo > íe > ý io > ie > yío > íe > ý i-mutation in Old English, before 6th cent.
2. Latin Loans: into Old English Baugh §59 p. 81 Latin through Celtic (Latin Influence of the First Period) castra ‘camp'-ceaster Manchester, Doncaster vicus ‘village, district'wíc Norwich, Greenwich, Sandwich, Berwick vinum ‘wine'wín
2. Latin Loans: into Old English Baugh §60-62 p. 82-87 Latin Influence of the Second Period: the Christianizing of Britain candelacandel nona hora ‘ninth hour'nón ‘three o’clock in the afternoon’ presbyter ‘priest'préost
2. Latin Loans: into Old English Baugh §63-5 p. 87-91 Later borrowings: Christianity, science apostle cantor prophet history paper term cucumber ginger cyprus fig laurel cancer plaster
Middle English 3. Latin Loans: into Middle English
This process continues in Middle English as science and technology progresses. Both French and English took learned words from Latin; it is not always possible to say whether a loan into English comes through French or straight from Latin.
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English Baugh § 142 p.184 “Latin Borrowings in Middle English” adjacent frustrate genius incredible index interrupt quiet solitary suppress testimony
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English § 143 p.185 “Aureate Terms” conscious introduction of ornate and unusual words which have since died out: abusion dispone diurne - although some have been retained mediation oriental
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English § 144 p.186 “Synonyms on three levels” fire – flame – conflagration time – age - epoch Saxon – “strong, simple, direct” French – stylistic Latin – learned, bookish Baugh points out that large numbers of French words are no less robust and powerful than English ones, and that this distinction is to some extent based on prejudice
Baugh 144 continued – ignore the many hundreds of words from French which are equally simple and as capable of conveying a vivid image, idea, or emotion-nouns like bar, beak, cell, cry, fool, frown, fury, glory, guile, gullet, horror, humor, isle, pity, river, rock, ruin, stain, stuff, touch, wreck, or adjectives such as calm, clear, cruel, eager, fierce, gay, mean, rude, safe, tender, to take examples almost at random. The truth is that many of the most vivid and forceful words in English are French, and even where the French and Latin words are more literary or learned, as indeed they often are, they are no less valuable and important.
continued.. The richness of English in synonyms is largely due to the happy mingling of Latin, French, and native elements. It has been said that we have a synonym at each level-popular, literary, and learned. Although this statement must not be pressed too hard, a difference is often apparent, as in rise-mountascend, ask-question- interrogate, goodness-virtue-probity, fast-firmsecure, fire-flame-conflagration, fear-terror-trepidation, holy- sacredconsecrated, time-age-epoch. In each of these sets of three words the first is English, the second is from French, and the third from Latin. The difference in tone between the English and the French words is often slight; the Latin word is generally more bookish. However, it is more important to recognize the distinctive uses of each than to form prejudices in favor of one group above another.
Early Modern English 4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
The beginning of the end for Latin as a scientific language. Number of Latin loans increases as the use of Latin as a written language begins to decline (cf French loanwords) 4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
Shakespeare’s 20 years in London Effectual effectuous effectful effectuating effective –Many of the words objected to have now become common –Often different meanings when first introduced expect (wait) enlargement (freedom) humorous (wet, damp) 4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
“Inkhorn terms” § 158 p. 217 –read particularlythe quote frm Thomas Wilson’s Arte of Rhetorique on p.218 –and the next 2 sections, § 159 The Defense of Borrowing and § 160 Compromise. 4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English