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Early History of Monasticism 1.Ascetics in the Bible. 2.Ascetics in early Judaism: Essenes. 3.The rise of monasticism. 4.St.Antony of Egypt. 5.Communal.

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Presentation on theme: "Early History of Monasticism 1.Ascetics in the Bible. 2.Ascetics in early Judaism: Essenes. 3.The rise of monasticism. 4.St.Antony of Egypt. 5.Communal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early History of Monasticism 1.Ascetics in the Bible. 2.Ascetics in early Judaism: Essenes. 3.The rise of monasticism. 4.St.Antony of Egypt. 5.Communal monasticism. 6.Spiritual warfare. 7.Functions of the holy man. Temptation of Christ in the desert

2 Nazarites in the OT Consecrated to God and made the following vows: –Abstained from wine –Did not cut their hair –Avoided contact with the dead body Example: Samson

3 Essene settlement in Qumran (second c. BC-first c. AD) Lived in an isolated community founded by the “Teacher of Righteousness” Rejected Temple worship Massacred by Romans in 68 AD.

4 Dead Sea Scroll Jar from Qumran

5 John the Baptist “Now John was clothed with camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist, and he ate locusts and wild honey.” Mk 1: 6.

6 NT call to perfection Matthew 19:21: If you wish to be perfect, go, sell your possessions, and give the money to the poor and you will have treasure in heaven; then come, follow me." (cf. Evagrius, Praktikos 97) 1 Corinthians 7:1-2, 7: ‘It is well for a man not to touch a woman, but because of cases of sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband... This I say by way of concession, not of command. I wish that all were as I myself am.’

7 Stark contrast between the cultivated land and the desert

8 Leaving everything behind...

9 Two reasons for the rise of monasticism 1.Renewal movement within the church. 2.Call to personal holiness.

10 Antony the Great (251?-356) founder of solitary monasticism his call Athanasius’ Life of St. Antony became a model

11 St Antony enjoying the company of St Paul the Hermit

12 Life was not peaceful all the time...

13 Demonic hordes attack St Antony

14 A close-up of the demonic ‘Zoo’

15 St Antony’s monastery. Founded in 356.

16 Entrance towers, St Antony’s monastery

17 Communal Monasticism 1.St Pachomius. 2.Pachomian monasteries 3.Pachomian Rules. Apa Menos is a friend of God

18 St. Pachomius ( ) Founded a monastery at Tabenninsi in Egypt about 320 AD Wrote the first monastic rule At death presided over 9 monasteries for men and 2 for women Pachomius & David of Thessalonica (right)

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20 Main architectural features of Pachomius’s monastery Enclosing wall Gate-house Guest-house Assembly Hall (church or synaxis) Refectory with Kitchen Hospital Several houses with cells for monks

21 Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai.

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23 Monastery of Anba Hatre in Egypt

24 Anba Hatre. Plan of the monastery.

25 Principal Church (11 th c.; remains)

26 A Cell with Stone Beds

27 Spiritual warfare: five stages of sin 1.Provocation 2.Coupling 3.Assent 4.Captivity 5.Habit

28 Seven deadly sins

29 Goals of monastic life 1.Purity of heart 2.Ceaseless prayer 3.Life according to the Beatitudes 4.Self-mastery. 5.Imitation of Christ 6.Final goal: eternal life Ladder of Divine Assent: John Climachus

30 The function of the holy man in Late Antiquity Miracle-worker Patron and protector Mediator between heaven and earth Intercessor who stands outside social relations


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