Presentation on theme: "Early History of Monasticism 1.Ascetics in the Bible. 2.Ascetics in early Judaism: Essenes. 3.The rise of monasticism. 4.St.Antony of Egypt. 5.Communal."— Presentation transcript:
Early History of Monasticism 1.Ascetics in the Bible. 2.Ascetics in early Judaism: Essenes. 3.The rise of monasticism. 4.St.Antony of Egypt. 5.Communal monasticism. 6.Spiritual warfare. 7.Functions of the holy man. Temptation of Christ in the desert
Nazarites in the OT Consecrated to God and made the following vows: –Abstained from wine –Did not cut their hair –Avoided contact with the dead body Example: Samson
Essene settlement in Qumran (second c. BC-first c. AD) Lived in an isolated community founded by the “Teacher of Righteousness” Rejected Temple worship Massacred by Romans in 68 AD.
Dead Sea Scroll Jar from Qumran
John the Baptist “Now John was clothed with camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist, and he ate locusts and wild honey.” Mk 1: 6.
NT call to perfection Matthew 19:21: If you wish to be perfect, go, sell your possessions, and give the money to the poor and you will have treasure in heaven; then come, follow me." (cf. Evagrius, Praktikos 97) 1 Corinthians 7:1-2, 7: ‘It is well for a man not to touch a woman, but because of cases of sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband... This I say by way of concession, not of command. I wish that all were as I myself am.’
Stark contrast between the cultivated land and the desert
Leaving everything behind...
Two reasons for the rise of monasticism 1.Renewal movement within the church. 2.Call to personal holiness.
Antony the Great (251?-356) founder of solitary monasticism his call Athanasius’ Life of St. Antony became a model
St Antony enjoying the company of St Paul the Hermit
Life was not peaceful all the time...
Demonic hordes attack St Antony
A close-up of the demonic ‘Zoo’
St Antony’s monastery. Founded in 356.
Entrance towers, St Antony’s monastery
Communal Monasticism 1.St Pachomius. 2.Pachomian monasteries 3.Pachomian Rules. Apa Menos is a friend of God
St. Pachomius ( ) Founded a monastery at Tabenninsi in Egypt about 320 AD Wrote the first monastic rule At death presided over 9 monasteries for men and 2 for women Pachomius & David of Thessalonica (right)
Main architectural features of Pachomius’s monastery Enclosing wall Gate-house Guest-house Assembly Hall (church or synaxis) Refectory with Kitchen Hospital Several houses with cells for monks
Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai.
Monastery of Anba Hatre in Egypt
Anba Hatre. Plan of the monastery.
Principal Church (11 th c.; remains)
A Cell with Stone Beds
Spiritual warfare: five stages of sin 1.Provocation 2.Coupling 3.Assent 4.Captivity 5.Habit
Seven deadly sins
Goals of monastic life 1.Purity of heart 2.Ceaseless prayer 3.Life according to the Beatitudes 4.Self-mastery. 5.Imitation of Christ 6.Final goal: eternal life Ladder of Divine Assent: John Climachus
The function of the holy man in Late Antiquity Miracle-worker Patron and protector Mediator between heaven and earth Intercessor who stands outside social relations