3Learning objectivesKQ: How do specific animals and plants adapt to their environment?Know thatAnimals and plants must be adapted to live in a variety of climates, including extreme environments.There are general adaptations and specific adaptations.Know the differences between predator and prey relationships.
6Task 3: Mini Plenary True or false? Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on adaptation, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of the subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.
9Task 4: Adaptations of predators What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing?Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey.High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected.Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.
10Task 5: Adaptations of prey What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators?Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions.High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators.Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves.Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.
14Task 9: Let’s pretendSome harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry.For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees.Photo credits (left and right): Henri Goulet, Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaThe insect on the left is a hoverfly (Spilomyia longicornis) and the insect on the right is a common wasp (Vespula vulgaris).This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverflyis incapable of stinging.
15Task: Mini plenary Predator Both Prey Predator Both Prey Sharp teeth/clawsHigh speedWide field of viewBinocular visionPoisonMimicrycamouflagecamouflageMimicryHigh speedSharp teeth/clawsBinocular visionWide field of viewPoisonTeacher notesAppropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.
18Task 11: How is a camel adapted? How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheatinglittle water is lost through sweating or urinationlong, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat lossPhoto credit: Roma Rishkinwide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand
19More camel adaptations What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment?long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting innostrils can be closed for protection during sandstormsPhoto credit: Bas Silderhuisvery varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones.
20Which adaptation? Task: Mini plenary Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.
21Is SA:V important for plants? There are a few desert plants with broad leaves and hence a large SA. These leaves curl to catch any dew in the cold evenings, which is then funnelled to their shallow roots.Other plants in dry environments have curled leaves which reduces the surface area and traps a layer of moist air around the leaf which reduces the amount of water they lose by evaporation.
22Normally...Most plants that live in dry environments have a reduced surface area. Why?What other leaf characteristics are good for desert living?Why do plants need water?How do plants lose water from their leaves?Why do plants often reduce the SA of their leaves to help them prevent water loss?
24Plant adaptations in the Desert Plants like cacti have adaptations such as very deep or wide root systems to collect as much water as possible.Plants that live in dry areas also need adaptations to reduce the amount of water they loseThey lose water through tiny holes (stomata) in their leaves when they make food by photosynthesis.On your diagram illustrate with words how plants are adapted to different environments
25Task 12: How is a cactus adapted? How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water lossleaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predatorsPhoto credit: Paul Harveyroots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water
26What do flowers do?Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination.Photo credit: Tracy TohIn what ways can pollination take place?Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another.Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.
27I know that plants must be adapted to allow for their seeds to disperse and germinate away from the parent plantDispersal method
28Task 13: Adaptations for insect pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies?colourful, scented petals attract insectsnectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flowerlarge, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s bodystiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past themPhoto credit: Dog MadicTeacher notesThe anther is the part of the flower that produces pollen. The stigma is sticky and is the part of the flower to which pollen must attach for pollination to take place.How bees pollinate flowersThe colour and scent of the petals attract a bee. Many petals also have ‘guidelines’, sometimes invisible to humans, that guide the bee into the centre of the flower.Nectar is produced by the petals and used by bees to make honey, an energy-rich food source.The nectar is located deep within the flower, so the bee must brush past the anthers and stigma.As the bees brushed the anthers, large, sticky pollen grains rub off onto the bee’s body.The bee flies off to another flower to collect more nectar.As the bees brushes past the stigma, the pollen grains are rubbed off – this is pollination.
30Unusual plant adaptations Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need.Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in.Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape!The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!
31Which organism? Task: Mini Plenary Teacher notes This quiz activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise. There are six mystery organisms to identify and each organism has three clues. The similarity of adaptations between different organisms could be used as stimulus for a wider discussion about evolution.
32Multiple-choice quiz Task: Mini Plenary Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of adaptation. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.
33Where might small plants find it difficult to receive enough light? PLENARYWhere might small plants find it difficult to receive enough light?State 3 ways a plant might conserve water.How do animals know not to eat certain plants?