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5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships

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1 5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships

2 Different types of environment
There are three major types of environment. What are they? land freshwater marine Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation How do organisms survive in such different environments?

3 Learning objectives KQ: How do specific animals and plants adapt to their environment? Know that Animals and plants must be adapted to live in a variety of climates, including extreme environments. There are general adaptations and specific adaptations. Know the differences between predator and prey relationships.

4 Task 1: A shark’s general adaptations
What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water fins provide stability, power and control gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

5 Task 2: A shark’s specific adaptations
What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Teacher notes A shark’s teeth are not fixed to its jaw but embedded directly into the flesh. Its teeth are constantly replaced as they fall out or are broken, so that a shark may get through thousands of teeth during its lifetime. The lower teeth are mainly used for holding prey, while the upper teeth are used for cutting. The shark’s specialized sense organs include: lateral lines – a row of fluid-filled sensory canals along each side of the shark. These can detect movement and changes in pressure from about 100m away. ampullae of Lorenzini – small pits in the shark’s snout that detect tiny electrical fields, such as those associated with muscle contraction of prey. auditory system – can detect the sound created by injured prey from over 1 mile away. silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage

6 Task 3: Mini Plenary True or false? Teacher notes
This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on adaptation, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of the subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.

7 Animals that eat other animals
A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. Predators can be either: carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation A prey animal is one that is attacked and eaten by a predator.

8 How are predators and prey adapted?
Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey. Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators. Photo credit (left and right): © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

9 Task 4: Adaptations of predators
What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing? Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey. High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected. Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.

10 Task 5: Adaptations of prey
What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators? Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions. High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators. Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves. Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.

11 Task 6: Adaptations of the snowshoe hare
The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage large ears help in detecting predators monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold

12 Task 7: Adaptations of the lynx
How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? excellent binocular vision for judging distances warm thick furry coat protects from the cold sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh very strong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres! Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation extra large paws act as snow shoes

13 Task 8: Using poison Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey. Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey. Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation The photo shows the tropical blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates azureus), native to the rainforests of Surinam, South America. Teacher notes There are many species of poisonous frogs throughout the rainforests of Central and South America. They are often brightly coloured, with red, yellow, pink, blue, green, purple or gold markings, and are usually very small. The toxic compounds that make up the poison of Dendrobates azureus are not made by the frog itself, but are absorbed from the insects that it eats. Frogs raised or kept in captivity are therefore not poisonous. The poison of certain frog species is used by indigenous tribes to coat their blowdarts. These are then used for hunting. They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.

14 Task 9: Let’s pretend Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry. For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees. Photo credits (left and right): Henri Goulet, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada The insect on the left is a hoverfly (Spilomyia longicornis) and the insect on the right is a common wasp (Vespula vulgaris). This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverfly is incapable of stinging.

15 Task: Mini plenary Predator Both Prey Predator Both Prey
Sharp teeth/claws High speed Wide field of view Binocular vision Poison Mimicry camouflage camouflage Mimicry High speed Sharp teeth/claws Binocular vision Wide field of view Poison Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.

16 Task 10: How is a polar bear adapted?
How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate? white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

17 More specific polar bears adaptations
Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment include: small ears and small body surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation black skin is a good absorber of heat

18 Task 11: How is a camel adapted?
How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheating little water is lost through sweating or urination long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss Photo credit: Roma Rishkin wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand

19 More camel adaptations
What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment? long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms Photo credit: Bas Silderhuis very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones.

20 Which adaptation? Task: Mini plenary Teacher notes
Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.

21 Is SA:V important for plants?
There are a few desert plants with broad leaves and hence a large SA. These leaves curl to catch any dew in the cold evenings, which is then funnelled to their shallow roots. Other plants in dry environments have curled leaves which reduces the surface area and traps a layer of moist air around the leaf which reduces the amount of water they lose by evaporation.

22 Normally... Most plants that live in dry environments have a reduced surface area. Why? What other leaf characteristics are good for desert living? Why do plants need water? How do plants lose water from their leaves? Why do plants often reduce the SA of their leaves to help them prevent water loss?

23 Conserving water

24 Plant adaptations in the Desert
Plants like cacti have adaptations such as very deep or wide root systems to collect as much water as possible. Plants that live in dry areas also need adaptations to reduce the amount of water they lose They lose water through tiny holes (stomata) in their leaves when they make food by photosynthesis. On your diagram illustrate with words how plants are adapted to different environments

25 Task 12: How is a cactus adapted?
How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators Photo credit: Paul Harvey roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water

26 What do flowers do? Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination. Photo credit: Tracy Toh In what ways can pollination take place? Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another. Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.

27 I know that plants must be adapted to allow for their seeds to disperse and germinate away from the parent plant Dispersal method

28 Task 13: Adaptations for insect pollination
How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies? colourful, scented petals attract insects nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them Photo credit: Dog Madic Teacher notes The anther is the part of the flower that produces pollen. The stigma is sticky and is the part of the flower to which pollen must attach for pollination to take place. How bees pollinate flowers The colour and scent of the petals attract a bee. Many petals also have ‘guidelines’, sometimes invisible to humans, that guide the bee into the centre of the flower. Nectar is produced by the petals and used by bees to make honey, an energy-rich food source. The nectar is located deep within the flower, so the bee must brush past the anthers and stigma. As the bees brushed the anthers, large, sticky pollen grains rub off onto the bee’s body. The bee flies off to another flower to collect more nectar. As the bees brushes past the stigma, the pollen grains are rubbed off – this is pollination.

29 Task 14: Adaptations for wind pollination
How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind? huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains small, dull-coloured petals anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

30 Unusual plant adaptations
Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!

31 Which organism? Task: Mini Plenary Teacher notes
This quiz activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise. There are six mystery organisms to identify and each organism has three clues. The similarity of adaptations between different organisms could be used as stimulus for a wider discussion about evolution.

32 Multiple-choice quiz Task: Mini Plenary Teacher notes
This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of adaptation. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

33 Where might small plants find it difficult to receive enough light?
PLENARY Where might small plants find it difficult to receive enough light? State 3 ways a plant might conserve water. How do animals know not to eat certain plants?

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