Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE 5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE 5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE 5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships

2 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE There are three major types of environment. What are they? landfreshwatermarine How do organisms survive in such different environments? Different types of environment

3 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Learning objectives KQ: How do specific animals and plants adapt to their environment? Know that Animals and plants must be adapted to live in a variety of climates, including extreme environments.Animals and plants must be adapted to live in a variety of climates, including extreme environments. There are general adaptations and specific adaptations.There are general adaptations and specific adaptations. Know the differences between predator and prey relationships.Know the differences between predator and prey relationships.

4 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? Task 1: A shark’s general adaptations streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water fins provide stability, power and control

5 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? Task 2: A shark’s specific adaptations highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms

6 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE True or false? Task 3: Mini Plenary

7 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. A prey animal is one that is attacked and eaten by a predator. Predators can be either: Animals that eat other animals carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans.

8 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey. Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators. How are predators and prey adapted?

9 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 4: Adaptations of predators What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing? Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey. High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected. Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.

10 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 5: Adaptations of prey What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators? Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions. High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators. Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves. Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.

11 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? Task 6: Adaptations of the snowshoe hare greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold large ears help in detecting predators monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching

12 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? Task 7: Adaptations of the lynx excellent binocular vision for judging distances warm thick furry coat protects from the cold extra large paws act as snow shoes sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh very strong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres!

13 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 8: Using poison Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey. Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey. Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die. They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.

14 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 9: Let’s pretend Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry. For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees. This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverfly is incapable of stinging.

15 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE PredatorBothPrey camouflageMimicry High speed Sharp teeth/claws Binocular vision Wide field of view Poison Task: Mini plenaryPredatorBothPrey Sharp teeth/claws High speed Wide field of view Binocular vision PoisonMimicry camouflage

16 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate? Task 10: How is a polar bear adapted? white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes

17 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment include: More specific polar bears adaptations small ears and small body surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection black skin is a good absorber of heat

18 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Task 11: How is a camel adapted? fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheating little water is lost through sweating or urination long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand

19 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment? More camel adaptations nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones. long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in

20 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Which adaptation? Task: Mini plenary

21 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE There are a few desert plants with broad leaves and hence a large SA. These leaves curl to catch any dew in the cold evenings, which is then funnelled to their shallow roots. Other plants in dry environments have curled leaves which reduces the surface area and traps a layer of moist air around the leaf which reduces the amount of water they lose by evaporation.

22 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Most plants that live in dry environments have a reduced surface area. Why? What other leaf characteristics are good for desert living? Why do plants need water? How do plants lose water from their leaves? Why do plants often reduce the SA of their leaves to help them prevent water loss?

23 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE

24 GCSE CORE Plant adaptations in the Desert Plants like cacti have adaptations such as very deep or wide root systems to collect as much water as possible. Plants that live in dry areas also need adaptations to reduce the amount of water they lose They lose water through tiny holes (stomata) in their leaves when they make food by photosynthesis. On your diagram illustrate with words how plants are adapted to different environments

25 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Task 12: How is a cactus adapted? water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water

26 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE What do flowers do? Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination. In what ways can pollination take place? Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another. Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.

27 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE I know that plants must be adapted to allow for their seeds to disperse and germinate away from the parent plant

28 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 13: Adaptations for insect pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies? colourful, scented petals attract insects large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them

29 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Task 14: Adaptations for wind pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind? small, dull- coloured petals anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped

30 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs! Unusual plant adaptations

31 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Which organism? Task: Mini Plenary

32 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE Multiple-choice quiz Task: Mini Plenary

33 Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE 1.Where might small plants find it difficult to receive enough light? 2.State 3 ways a plant might conserve water. 3.How do animals know not to eat certain plants?


Download ppt "Biology 1b Evolution and Environment GCSE CORE 5.1/2 Specific adaptations, including predator-prey relationships."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google