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(SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group FILSAN / PHOSPHORUS POST- EMERGNECY INTERVENTIONS IN THE DRY LAND FARMING OF THE BAY REGION-SOMALIA Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "(SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group FILSAN / PHOSPHORUS POST- EMERGNECY INTERVENTIONS IN THE DRY LAND FARMING OF THE BAY REGION-SOMALIA Presented."— Presentation transcript:

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2 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group FILSAN / PHOSPHORUS POST- EMERGNECY INTERVENTIONS IN THE DRY LAND FARMING OF THE BAY REGION-SOMALIA Presented at the Regional Workshop on Dryland Farming Practices in Emergency and Post- Emergency Context October 1-2, 08 Nairobi, Kenya HUSSEIN HAJI

3 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group OVERVIEW Introduction Introduction Bay region (population, crops, cropping systems, rainfall) Bay region (population, crops, cropping systems, rainfall) Pre-emergency research findings on: Pre-emergency research findings on: Filsan mungbean Filsan mungbean Phosphorous Phosphorous Post-emergency interventions Post-emergency interventions Filsan mungbean Filsan mungbean Phosphorous Phosphorous

4 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Introduction Human population 400,000 Human population 400,000 45% farmers 45% farmers 33% nomadic 33% nomadic 20% non agricultural 20% non agricultural Animal population 1.1M Animal population 1.1M 29% camels 29% camels 34% cattle 34% cattle 33% goats 33% goats 04% sheep 04% sheep

5 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Introduction Crops Crops Sorghum 95% Sorghum 95% Grain - human consumption Grain - human consumption Stover – Livestock consumption Stover – Livestock consumption Other Crops 5% Other Crops 5% Cowpeas, mungbeans and peanuts Cowpeas, mungbeans and peanuts

6 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Introduction Arid to semi arid Arid to semi arid Annual rainfall mm-Bimodal Annual rainfall mm-Bimodal GU: mm GU: mm Der: 200 –250mm Der: 200 –250mm 80% of the grain is produced during the Gu season Average temperature Average temperature 26 o C mm 25 yrs

7 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Introduction Subsistence farming Subsistence farming Farm size 1-8 ha Farm size 1-8 ha Monocropping system Monocropping system Inputs Inputs Seed Seed Labor Labor Grain Yield (sorghum) kg/ha Grain Yield (sorghum) kg/ha

8 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group BIG BANG Emergency and post Emergency context PRE-EMERGENCY RESEARCH FINDINGS Research and Academic inst. Somtux Filsan seed release Phosphorus

9 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group I- FILSAN SEED: PRE- EMERGENCY RESEARCH RESULTS ( )

10 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency ( ) Days to maturity Seeds/pod

11 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency ( ) 1000 Seed wt.Yield (kg/ha)

12 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency ( ) Filsan seed was recommended for release in 1987 Filsan seed was recommended for release in 1987 Filsan seed multiplication was initiated in 1988 and 1989 Filsan seed multiplication was initiated in 1988 and 1989 Civil war 1990 Civil war 1990 Filsan seed along with all other institutional memories were vanished Filsan seed along with all other institutional memories were vanished

13 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group I- FILSAN SEED: POST- EMERGENCY INTERVENTIONS ( )

14 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Filsan: Post-emergency recovery Breeders Seed (FILSAN) was obtained from AVRDC-Taiwan Breeders Seed (FILSAN) was obtained from AVRDC-Taiwan 2002 & 2003 seed increased in Minnesota 2002 & 2003 seed increased in Minnesota March kg of seed shipped to ICRISAT- Kenya for further seed increase March kg of seed shipped to ICRISAT- Kenya for further seed increase 2005, 110 kg Filsan seed produced with the help of ICRISAT-Nairobi 2005, 110 kg Filsan seed produced with the help of ICRISAT-Nairobi

15 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Post-emergency recovery 110 kg Filsan seed repatriated To Somalia and distributed to farmers by SAGRA

16 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Post-emergency recovery

17 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group LIMITATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES I-Limitation Lack of institutional support for Lack of institutional support for Evaluation of new potential varieties Evaluation of new potential varieties Technology transfer support services Technology transfer support services Seed support institutions Seed support institutions Small-scale seed multiplication, distribution and marketing systems Small-scale seed multiplication, distribution and marketing systems Human resources development Human resources developmentII-Opportunities Emergence of new support services Emergence of new support services INGO and local NGO INGO and local NGO

18 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group II- PHOSPHOROUS: PRE- EMERGENCY RESEARCH RESULTS ( )

19 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency: Response to P bb b a a Grain Yield (kg/ha) 58% 91% N+P = 50N P; N+P = 100N + 35P Gu1986-Sorghum

20 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency: Response to P Grain Yield (kg/ha) d d d c a 147% 424% Gu1987-Sorghum

21 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency: Response to Animal Manure Grain Yield (kg/ha) Gu1987-Sorghum T1=5T/ha Camel T2=5T/ha Goat T3=5T/ha Cattle T4= 10T/ha Goat T5=10T/ha Cattle c c ab b aa

22 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Pre-emergency: Response to Animal Manure Grain Yield (kg/ha) Gu1986-Sorghum T1=5T/ha Camel T2=5T/ha Goat T3=5T/ha Cattle T4= 10T/ha Goat T5=10T/ha Cattle b b b a a a

23 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Response to P on Filsan mungbean

24 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Similar Experience in the Sahelian Region  44 to 120% yield increase for sorghum and millet Reported by ICRISAT

25 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Why P is not available to plants in the Bay Region soils? High soil pH 8.0 to 8.3

26 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Why P is not available to plants in the Bay Region soils? The soil pH range at which maximum P availability occurs is between 6.0 and 7.0 The soil pH range at which maximum P availability occurs is between 6.0 and 7.0 In the Bay Region, the soils are alkaline and have a pH ranging from of 8.0 to 8.5 In the Bay Region, the soils are alkaline and have a pH ranging from of 8.0 to 8.5 Soils with a pH of 7.5 and higher typically have a high calcium concentration that binds P as calcium-phosphate creating an insoluble compound that is not available to plants Soils with a pH of 7.5 and higher typically have a high calcium concentration that binds P as calcium-phosphate creating an insoluble compound that is not available to plants Therefore, it is necessary to amend agricultural soils in the Bay Region with available forms of P at the correct agronomic rate Therefore, it is necessary to amend agricultural soils in the Bay Region with available forms of P at the correct agronomic rate

27 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group Relationship between soil PH and Phosphorous availability

28 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group RECOMMENDATION Would P-Aid be a potential solution? It is an established fact that P is a yield limiting factor in the Bay Region It is an established fact that P is a yield limiting factor in the Bay Region The data clearly show that P-application can double/triple yield The data clearly show that P-application can double/triple yield P application establishes a good root system which is important for the dryland crops. P application establishes a good root system which is important for the dryland crops. SATG is seriously considering to develop a concept note where food aid is gradually replaced with P-Aid in the Bay Region SATG is seriously considering to develop a concept note where food aid is gradually replaced with P-Aid in the Bay Region

29 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group ACKNOWLEDGMENT

30 (SATG) Somali Agriculture Technical Group THANK YOU


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