Presentation on theme: "The appearance of agriculture and pastoralism (maybe the single most important change in history)"— Presentation transcript:
The appearance of agriculture and pastoralism (maybe the single most important change in history)
The origins of agriculture and domestic animals. The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals took place independently in different parts of the world, but the Near East, Mesoamerica, southeast Asia, and China were among the first and most significant regions.
The Neolithic revolution didn’t happen abruptly, but emerged gradually as a result of trial and error It first appeared in a few places, not everywhere Most people didn’t go through it at first, and some still haven’t On the whole, agriculture was the big winner over pastoralism and hunting and gathering
Domestication is not taming Taming is accustomizing an animal to the presence of humans (many animals have been tamed but not domesticated) Domesticating is changing a plant or animal on the biological level (most plants and animals have never been domesticated)
1. Notice a desirable trait in a species 2. Separate members of the species from nature 3. Selective breeding (artificial selection) 4. Exaggerate and stabilize desirable trait(s) 5. Change on the biological level
Domesticated Plants There are about 200,000 wild species 12 domesticated plants account for 80% of the tonnage of all crops: Cereals: wheat, corn, barley, rice, sorghum Pulses: soybeans Tubers: potato, manioc, sweet potato Sugar: sugar cane, beet sugar Fruit: banana
Large Terrestrial Domesticates The Major Five : 1. Sheep 2. Cow 3. Goat 4. Pig 5. Horse The Minor Nine: 6. Arabian Camel11. Water Buffalo 7. Bactrian Camel12. Yak 8. Llama and Alpaca13. Bali Cattle 9. Donkey14. Mithan 10. Reindeer
What was the impact of the Neolithic Revolution?
Agriculture led to a sedentary lifestyle Pastoralism led to a nomadic lifestyle Agriculturalists often used domesticated animals New social institutions emerged: Neolithic villages Pastoralist clan-tribes Agriculture led to enormous productivity increases Agriculture led to significant population increase and density Specialization of technology and skills developed
The vulnerability of monoculture Soil destruction Disease The nomad-sedentary conflict Social disruption