Mohamed/Muhammad had visions of the Angel Gabriel, who told him to recite the word of god Mohamed’s teachings were collected and written in the Quran
Mohamed/Muhammad 622-forced to leave Mecca for the city of Medina this move is called the hejira he created the first Islamic city-state in Medina 630 -returned and invaded Mecca 632 -death of Mohamed
Beliefs/Traditions Five Pillars of Islam These are the main religious duties of Muslims There will definitely be a question on the Regents about the 5 Pillars, so you better know them!
Five Pillars of Islam Shadah belief in one god Salat prayer 5 times a day Siyam to fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan
Five Pillars of Islam Zakat giving to charity and the poor every year Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia once in a Muslim’s life
Spread of Islam Following the death of Mohamed … Islam experienced rapid expansion in Afro Eurasia Muslim armies marched across WE until they were defeated in France, Battle of Tours, 732 By the 1400’s, Muslim Empire extended from Spain to India
Rapid Expansion of the Islamic Empire, 7 th -8 th C 636-Damascus became capital city (ME) 638-Jerusalem (ME) 640-Cyprus (ME) 640-Alexandria,Egypt (AF) 670-Muslim blockade of Constantinople (EE)
Rapid Expansion of the Islamic Empire, 7 th -8 th C 697-Carthage (AF) 711-Toledo, capital of Spain (WE) 718- all of Spain (WE) 732-southern France until defeated at Battle of Tours (WE)
Umayyad Dynasty 661-750 Capital city at Damascus (Syria, SWA) Arabic became language of many conquered people and helped unify them under Islam camel and horse cavalries were faster than traditional armies; empire expanded quickly
Umayyad Dynasty 661-750 How did the Ummayads treat the people they conquered? allowed people to follow own belief systems and culture non-Muslims sometimes paid higher taxes Jews and Christians held important gov’t. positions many people converted to Islam in the late 8 th century
Umayyad Dynasty 661-750 For several centuries, most people in the Islamic Empire were neither Muslim or Arab. Cross regional and cultural exchange occurred for many years among Christians, Jews, Muslims and polytheistic people.