Presentation on theme: "The Arabian Peninsula Culture, Religion, and Influence."— Presentation transcript:
The Arabian Peninsula Culture, Religion, and Influence
If you are familiar with these… Asparagus Algebra Bangs Navigation Then you already have a connection to Arabia!
Silk Road Connection The Silk Road connected people of the Arabian peninsula with people of Asia. This provided the opportunity for an exchange of goods, ideas, and culture. The map above demonstrates the range of goods available on the silk road. Also, notice the terrain included along the route.
Geographical Location The Arabian Peninsula is in a part of the world we often call the Middle East, which places it between Europe and Asia. It includes such modern-day countries as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, and Jordan. As the second map shows, Saudi Arabia alone is roughly the same size as the eastern Unites States.
Landscape The Arabian Peninsula has these characteristics: Vast Deserts Bordering Mountains High Daily Temperatures Low Nightly Temperatures Limited Rainfall and Water Desert Oasis Locations Fertile Land Near Rivers
Bedouins Many people of Arabia were, and still are, Bedouins. Bedouins are nomadic groups. Hospitality is an important part of their culture. Bedouins belong to specific tribes. The most important form of transportation in the deserts of Arabia is camels. Camels can carry large loads for great distances. They require relatively little water. Their bodies are especially well adapted to the harsh desert environment. Bedouin man and his Camel Bedouin Family
Bedouin Tents In this tent interior, you can see the size of the space. Most of the textiles are colorful and contain intricate patterns. In this tent model, you can again see the use of colorful rugs. In front of the men’s half are the tools for making coffee. There is a curtain dividing the two halves. The women’s half is set up for weaving.
Food Arabian food has a great deal of variety due to the many regional differences in farming, fishing, and trading. Even so, certain items are shared in common. Rice is popular everywhere, similarities in climate support similar fruits (lemons, grapes, etc.), and sheep and goats, who can handle the environment, are used for meat and milk. Sherbet, the original Middle Eastern “soft drink”, was a method of preserving fruit beyond its season. Middle Eastern cooking wouldn’t be the same without such spices as saffron, ginger, cinnamon, cumin, and turmeric. Dates, which come in many varieties, are another popular fruit that can be grown throughout Arabia.
Art Pendant Incense Burner Iranian Painting Flask Textile Fragment Iranian Bowl Mosque Lamp
Tiles Tiles such as these would have been made in large quantities to provide a decorative surface by being laid together in a pattern. Those used to decorate mosques could not contain human or animal forms. Many tiles contained Arabic words, floral patterns, or geometric designs.
Inventions Islamic sailors combined the compass and sundial to create a useful tool. The kamal was a block of wood with a knotted string attached. The specific location of the knots helped to find latitude for ports. The astrolabe was perfected in Arabia for measuring the height of a star or planet. Islamic doctors knew a great deal about diagnosing diseasing, anatomy, public health, psychiatry, surgery, and circulation before the Western world.
Architecture Hygiene is important, and public baths have many rooms with different temperatures. A medrese is an academic building with several small rooms for classrooms and student housing. Mosques are characterized by domes, minarets, and a sizable courtyard.
Mosque Details Minarets are towers from which Muslims are called to prayer. This is a unique minaret in Baghdad, Iraq. Prayer hall floors are carpeted, often to show individual prayer spots. A mihrab niche symbolizes the entrance to paradise.
Islam The 'Five Pillars' of Islam are the foundation of Muslim life: Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the prophethood of Muhammad Establishment of the daily prayers (5 times) Concern for and almsgiving to the needy Self-purification through fasting during Ramadan The pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able Muhammad and Gabriel
Koran Illuminated Koran Manuscript The Koran is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe it was revealed by an angel to Muhammad. The text was memorized by Muhammad’s followers before being recorded in writing after his death. Folding stand for holding a copy of the Koran
Famous People Ibn Battuta: 14 th century Arabic traveler who visited more than 40 lands and left behind detailed, firsthand accounts of his journeys Marco Polo: 13 th century European traveler who opened trade between Europe and the Silk Route and wrote descriptions of Asia through a European’s eyes Chinese Sculpture Venetian Engraving Saladin: 12 th century military leader who is remembered in the Muslim world for his leadership against the Christians during the Crusades