6Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Emerged from interaction between outer and inner Eurasia.Led to exchange of goods between pastoral and settled peoples.Settled people tried to control the pastoralists, extended the boundaries…Rise of large states also helped: Roman and Chinese states.
7Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia a vast array of goods traveled along the Silk Roads, often by camelmostly luxury goods for the elitehigh cost of transport did not allow movement of staple goodsSilk symbolized the Eurasian exchange systemat first, China had a monopoly on silk technology (serious production 3000 BCE; Korea had it by 300 BCE; India by 300 CE)led to drain of resources from Roman Empire to eastYet, Romans regarded silk as morally decadent by the sixth century CE, other peoples produced silk:Byzantine Empire, Japan, Persiasilk was used as currency in Central Asiasilk was a symbol of high statussumptuary laws restricted silk clothing to the elite (China and the Byzantine Empire)silk was sacred in Buddhism and Christianitysilk industry not developed in Western Europe until 12th century
8Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Cultures in Transit:Buddhism: spread greatly, voluntaryappealed to merchants, snubbed Hindu-influenced caste systemMonasteries provided rest stops for merchantsMany converts in oasis citiesSpread more slowly amongst pastoralistsBuddhism itself was transformed: monasteries became rich and more involved in secular world.
9Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Disease in TransitLong-distance trading led to spread of diseaseMost lethal junctures: when an unfamiliar disease arrives in a new cultureAthens, BCE, infect from EgyptSmallpox and measles periodically ravaged the Roman and Han empires.CE bubonic plague from India to Mediterranean regionBlack Death, but much later and largely due to Mongol EmpireStrengthened Eurasians over the long run.
10Exchange across the Indian Ocean Sea routes:Exchange across the Indian OceanProbably most important trade networkMonsoon changes were crucial:Nov-Feb blew to SWApril-Sept blew to NEKey was regularitySea transport is cheaperSo more bulk goods: textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, wheatTrade was between towns and cities, not states
12Exchange across the Indian Ocean Sea routes:Exchange across the Indian OceanAlready some trading during Indus Valley periodEgyptians and Phoenicians traded along the Red SeaChinese merchants reached India 100 CEFulcrum was India: along with trade, spread Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia.Reunified China (Tang and Song Dynasties, ) brought cheap goods and provided markets.Rise of Islam crucial to further spreadwidespread conversion made trade move more freely
13Led to the creation of various states: Sea routes:Led to the creation of various states:Srivijaya civilization:Malay sailors gained control of the Straits of Malacca ca. 350 CE.Srivijaya came to dominate trade in this region from CE.Adopted Buddhism and became major centerSwahili civilization:Grew from demand for East African products: gold, ivory, quartz, leopard skins, slaves, iron, woodFlourished CEVery urban and city-state orientedSharp class distinctionsMost trade in Arab shipsGreat Arab and Muslim influenceTrade for gold led to Great Zimbabwe, CE
16Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara Commercial Beginnings in West Africa:North had manufactured goods, salt, horses, cloth, datesSouth had crops, gold, ivory, kola nuts, slavesIntroduction of camel was crucial, early in CERegular trans-Saharan commerce by CEHuge caravans, up to 5000 camelsLed to a number of states in western and central Sudan: Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Kanem, and Hausaland.Slaves came mostly from south, most sold in North Africa.