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FASH 15 textiles natural protein fibers—wool. natural protein fibers are of animal origin wool & specialty wools—hair & fur of animals silk—secretion.

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Presentation on theme: "FASH 15 textiles natural protein fibers—wool. natural protein fibers are of animal origin wool & specialty wools—hair & fur of animals silk—secretion."— Presentation transcript:

1 FASH 15 textiles natural protein fibers—wool

2 natural protein fibers are of animal origin wool & specialty wools—hair & fur of animals silk—secretion of the silk caterpillar natural protein fibers are luxury fibers today originally silk, vicuna, cashmere and camel wool production rates decrease while costs increase composed of various amino acids—have some common properties due to similar chemical composition: hygroscopic—absorb moisture and generate heat

3 wool wool’s combined properties unequaled by any manufactured fiber ability to be shaped by heat & moisture good moisture absorption without feeling wet excellent heat retention water repellency feltability flame-retardancy one of the earliest fibers to be spun into yarns & woven into fabric—most widely used textile fiber before the Industrial Revolution

4 production of wool in 2007: Australia—22.5% New Zealand—18.8% China—18.8% Eastern Europe—10.0% U.S.—.8% (ranked 10 th ) Merino sheep produce most valuable wool: good quality fleeces weigh lbs each 3-5 inches long & very fine produces high-quality, long-wearing products has soft hand & luster, good drape

5 production of wool fine wool in the U.S. is produced by 4 breeds: Delaine-Merino Rambouillet Debouillet Targhee majority produced in Texas and California 2 ½ inches long often used for products that compete with Merino

6 production of wool greatest share of U.S. wool productions is medium- grade—removed from animals raised for meat these wools: have larger diameter have greater variation in length (1 ½ - 6 inches) are used for carpeting—coarser fiber has high resiliency & good abrasion resistance 15 breeds commonly found in U.S. vary tremendously in appearance & type of wool—most raised in the west

7 production of wool generally sheared once a year—spring fleece is removed in one piece with long, smooth strokes beginning at legs & belly as alternatives to shearing (cut costs) chemical feed additive—makes wool brittle; several weeks later wool can be pulled off injection—causes sheep to shed fleece within week

8 production of wool raw wool/grease wool —newly removed—30-70% of weight is impurities; sand, dirt, grease, dried sweat (suint) clean/scoured wool —impurities removed grease is purified to lanolin & used in creams, cosmetics, soaps & ointments grading —evaluating fleece for fineness & length sorting —single fleece separated into sections of fibers of different quality

9 types & kinds of wool the term wool legally includes fibers from sheep, angora & cashmere goat, camel, alpaca, llama, & vicuna sheared wool—live sheep pulled wool—pelts of meat-type sheep recycled wool—worn apparel & cutter’s scraps lamb’s wool—animals less than 7 months old often blended with less expensive fibers: reduce cost extend use

10 types & kinds of wool Federal Trade Commission defines label terms as: virgin wool—never been processed wool—new wool or wool fibers reclaimed from knit scraps, broken thread and noils (short fibers removed in making worsted yarns) recycled wool—scraps of new woven or felted fabrics that are shredded back (garnetted) to the fibrous state & reused terms on a label do not refer to quality of fiber, but to past use

11 types & kinds of wool quality is based on: fiber fineness length scale structure color cleanliness freedom from damage caused by environment or processing

12 physical structure of wool—length merino wool—1 ½ - 5 inches long, fine wool fibers—average 2 ½ inches worsted —compact yarn made from longer fibers with greater uniformity that have been combed shorter fibers—average 1 ½ inches woolens—softer, more loosely twisted yarn made from shorter, less uniform & less parallel fibers diameter varies from micrometers complex structure with cuticle, cortex & medulla

13 physical structure of wool—medulla & cortex medulla is a microscopic, honeycomb-like core containing air spaces—increase insulating power appears as dark area when seen through microscope—usually absent in fine wools

14 physical structure of wool—medulla & cortex cortex is the main part of the fiber—made up of long, flattened, tapered cells with nucleus near center cortical cells on two sides of wool fiber react differently to moisture & temp—thus unique, 3D crimp

15 physical structure of wool—cuticle the cuticle consists of: epicuticle —thin, nonprotein membrane that covers scales; provides water repellency scales —a dense, nonfibrous layer that contributes to wool’s abrasion resistance and felting properties; can irritate the skin

16 physical structure of wool—cuticle felting is unique & important to wool—based on structure of the fiber combine agitation, friction & pressure with heat & moisture—adjacent wool fibers’ scale edges interlock prevents fiber from returning to original position results in shrinkage, or felting, of fabric

17 participation activity: felting wool …take a piece of wool fabric …wet the wool with soapy water (detergent speeds wetting) …work the wool with your hands—rolling it back & forth or around …after several minutes, examine the result and answer the following questions: is it felted? can you separate the individual fibers? explain what happened.

18 chemical composition of wool wool fiber is a cross-linked protein called keratin — same protein found in horns, hooves & in human hair and fingernails keratin consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen & sulfur—combine to form over 17 different amino acids flexible molecular chains of wool held together by natural cross links—cystine linkages—most important part if damaged, entire structure destroyed: alkalis, pressing & steaming, careless washing, exposure to light

19 properties of wool—aesthetics wool contributes loft & body to fabrics has matte appearance—shorter fibers often blended with longer fibers to modify luster or texture drape, luster, texture, and hand vary according to: yarn structure fabric structure finish examine varieties of wool fabrics

20 properties of wool—durability moderate abrasion resistance stems from scale structure & excellent flexibility—can be bent back on themselves 20,000 times without breaking (cotton—3,000 & flax—75) atmospheric moisture helps wool retain flexibility crimp & scale make fibers cohesive & clingy— stronger yarns excellent flexibility, elongation & elastic recovery wool fabrics can be used & enjoyed for many years

21 properties of wool—comfort more hygroscopic than any other fiber—13-18% moisture regain under standard conditions poor conductor of heat—good insulator wool fibers recover well from crushing—fabrics remain porous & trap air some are allergic to chemical components of wool; others bothered by harsh edges of coarse wools lightweight wools very comfortable in spring & fall

22 properties of wool—appearance retention resists wrinkling and recovers well from wrinkles maintains its shape fairly well during normal use dry-cleaning helps to retain shape & size when hand-washing be careful to avoid shrinkage or stretching

23 properties of wool—care does not soil readily—removal of soil is relatively simple grease & oil do not spot wool fabrics as easily do not need to be cleaned after every use layer with washable garments next to skin gentle use of firm, soft brush removes dust & returns matted fibers to original position garments require rest between wearing to recover very susceptible to damage when wet

24 properties of wool—care dry-cleaning recommended hand-washing procedures: avoid agitation squeeze gently support item so it does not stretch air-dry flat do not machine or tumble dry—felting will occur chlorine bleach damages wool very sensitive to alkalis—strong detergents attacked by moth larvae & other insects—store so inaccessible to moths

25 environmental concerns & sustainability although a renewable resource, not produced without environmental impact sheep graze so closely—soil erosion animal waste disposal sheep producers oppose programs to save wolves & other natural predators treatment of sheep shearing practices health & back problems associated with shearing hundreds of sheep daily intensive use of water, energy & chemicals used to clean wool fiber, produce fabrics & finish and dye them

26 environmental concerns & sustainability organic wool— sheep fed organically grown feed graze on land not treated with pesticides not dipped in synthetic pesticides some companies use barcodes to enable consumers to trace path wool takes from grower to production—criteria must be met to have barcode animal health & welfare long-term environmental respect fiber quality standards

27 uses of wool most important use is adult apparel perform well & look great fit well—shaped through tailoring durable fabrics drape well comfortable under variety of conditions retain appearance during wear & care minimal use in interiors— standard by which carpet is judged upholstery—durability & natural flame resistance

28 specialty wools most obtained from goat, rabbit, and camel families available in smaller quantities & usually more expensive vary in quality & require dry cleaning two categories: coarse, long outer hair—interlinings, upholstery & some coatings soft, fine undercoat—luxury coating, sweaters, shawls, suits, dresses, interior textiles

29 mohair angora goat major producers: South Africa, U.S., Turkey sheared twice a year—fall & spring adult goat yields about 5 lbs of fiber fiber length 4-6 inches/8-12 inches used in hand-knitting yarns, pile fabrics & suitings

30 qivuit rare, luxurious fiber underwool of domesticated musk ox—6 lbs of wool per year can be used just as it comes from animal resembles cashmere in hand & texture—much warmer shed naturally

31 angora hair of angora rabbit produced in Europe, Chile, China, & U.S. harvested up to 4 times/year—plucking or shearing fiber yield varies with rabbit, health, breed 8-30 oz. two most common breeds— English—fine, silky fiber French—coarser

32 camel hair obtained from two-humped, Bactrian camel major producers: China, Mongolia, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, New Zealand, Tibet, Australia excellent insulator collected as shed or sheared—about 5 lbs/year finer fibers valued for apparel often blended with sheep’s wool used in coats, jackets, scarves & sweaters

33 cashmere small Cashmere goat raised in China, Mongolia, Tibet, Afghanistan, Iran main source of income for herders in these countries vary in color from white to gray to brownish gray usually combed by hand during molting season used for sweaters, coats, suits, jackets, loungewear & blankets fabrics are warm, buttery in hand, and have beautiful draping

34 llama & alpaca domesticated animals of South American camel family branch fiber 8-12 inches long noted for softness, fineness, & luster— appreciated by fashion designers natural colors range from white-light fawn, light brown, dark brown, gray & black used for apparel, handcrafts & rugs more difficult to dye than other wools llama is coarser and most often used for coats, suitings, ponchos & shawls

35 vicuna & guanaco rare wild animals of South American camel family were killed for fiber, now sheared similar to sheep vicuna is one of softest, finest, rarest and most expensive of all textile fibers short, very lustrous fiber; light cinnamon in color threatened species— poaching continues to be problem

36 yak produced by large ox found in Tibet & Central Asia collected by combing out during spring molt fiber is smooth & lustrous often used natively in apparel, rope, tent covers internationally used to blend with cashmere— extend use & lower cost coarser than cashmere dark brown or black


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