Presentation on theme: "S-38.118 Teletekniikan perusteet Service Creation Services, without any additional particulars, like bearer services, teleservices, QoS services etc. refer."— Presentation transcript:
S-38.118 Teletekniikan perusteet Service Creation Services, without any additional particulars, like bearer services, teleservices, QoS services etc. refer to value added and supplementary services. What are these services and why the creation of services is an issue? There are various supplementary and value added services that one can obtain from a telephone or a mobile phone by pressing a sequence of buttons. Basically, few people remember them and use them and it would seem like these services are rather unnecessary decorations. This is actually not so. There are services which are of great economic value to an operator or service provider.
Service Creation, summary Examples of successful services include: –Intelligent Network (IN) Freephone in US, about 60% of long distance calls are 800-numbers –Camel Prepaid service for mobile phones in many countries, it reduces operator’s costs considerably –In Finland information on telephone and mobile numbers, payable Premium rate number –In some countries entertainment services –Televoting, other mass call services –Emergency calls, Malicious user identification not commercially succesful but very useful services –Call forwarding, answerers, Virtual Private Network etc. –These are voice services, but there are data services: –email, Web, file transfer are value added services –transaction processing, web searching, advertisement services
Service Creation, summary Combined voice and data services should have a large potential in the future: Karaoke-on-demand in Japan is a success Other on-demand services (video, news etc. on demand) could work WAP-services Electronic payment Videotelephony, (video)conference calls Networked games Net location service (nearest taxi etc.) Virtual home environment The problem is, that we do not really know what services will succeed, but there should be possibilities to invent new services which become as popular as the Web. Only to invent what. That is why the goal is to make platforms and methods for service creation.
Service Creation, summary Some claims on services: There are new good services to be invented, probably everybody believes this. The services can be end-system services, network is needed only as a transmission media. This view is held by some but not by most: You need network resources if you try to offer in an efficient way services which do any of the following things: –Change routing in the network, like number translation services in IN (Freephone, PremiumRate etc.) –Change charging of the connection (like Freephone, PremiumRate) –Can affect the dimensioning of the network (like Televoting) –Use network for location of users or network elements (net location) –Provide connections in a way anonymously (like PremiumRate) –Limit access by network mechanisms (VPN) –In some cases, handle multiparty calls effectively Many services can gain from accessing network resources, so the end- system view is not so popular.
Service Creation, summary Services must be introduced very fast in a competitive environment. A view generally accepted to be true. Network should be opened for external service providers. A disputed view, some operators support it as it should speed up creation of services, not all operators support it as management will be more difficult. Service creation is a new business area - generally believed to be true. There will also be many free services. Probably. Electronic commerce will be very important. Probably. Security problems can be overcome. Probably/maybe. Services pop up spontaneously from the Internet and there is no need for any special service creation platforms. The view is probably partially correct but mostly wrong. It is fine for web pages, but more complicated services need solutions for charging, use of network resources, management etc. Technology for service creation is not clear. There are many possibilities.
Service Creation, summary Service then is an application which is offered as a service by some party, so somebody wants to earn money by offering the service. A service platform is a system which facilitates service creation, provisioning and management. End-system applications like email and file transfer were developed originally in the Internet and proprietary data networks (like SNA, DNA) They, and other data application protocols, were considered as Value Added Services to be offered by an operator in the OSI model, but this did not succeed at that time. Now the data applications (largely using TCP/IP protocols) are offered as Value Added Services and there is much work done in order that operators and service providers can offer data, voice and video applications as services. Voice services were created first in the PSTN and the Intelligent Network architecture was made to speed up service creation. Most of the early IN services were invented before IN as services on a voice only network are of rather limited character.
Service Creation, summary The Intelligent Network deployment is made in phases, called the capability sets. IN CS1 is deployed and is voice only, IN CS2 and IN CS3 are specified and offer a larger range of services, but the role of IN is unclear in the future network architecture. It is quite possible that IN technology will be used and certainly some ideas will be reused. Camel (Customized Applications of Mobile Enhanced Logic) is of current interest as it offers GSM Phase 2+ users IN services. It is quite likely that Camel services, like prepaid, will exist for a long time. TINA (Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture) was an effort to put service creation and management on distributed processing platform using the ideas of ODP (Open Distributed Processing). There were several good ideas in TINA, notably use of middleware and TCP/IP under the middleware (CORBA) platform. From ODP TINA inherited OOD (Object Oriented Design) pronciples for service development. One can say that while TINA as such is dead, TINA ideas are reused in many modern approaches. There are solutions which simply build on CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Platform) and provide e.g. interworking of IP and SS7.
Service Creation, summary IP phone may get IN services using an agent which connects to an IN SCP (Service Control Point). This approach is called PINT. It is of limited use. Parley is a new technology which offers an API (Application Programming Interface), in reality several APIs, for accessing network resources. One can create many IN services using Parley. Net location based on Parley is likely to appear in near future, as well as many other Parley services. Parley adds authentication of the service provider to the Parley Framework owned by the operator. Using Parley network resources are opened to untrusted service providers. OSA (Open Service Architecture) is very similar to Parley, currently OSA is a subset of Parley. OSA is standardized by 3GPP. JAIN is a larger effort to put Java APIs everywhere, connected with Java telephony (JTAPI). JAIN is based on the assumption that there will be several network technologies, so there are APIs to many common networks (IN, PSTN, GSM, IP) and they are unified on a Java platform. For service creation JAIN offers two solutions: either you directly write Java services, or you use JAIN Parley interface and the services are offered by untrusted service providers.
Service Creation, summary MExE (Mobile station Execution Environment) is a way of creating services where service logic is downloaded from the network partially to a mobile station, partially to a SIM card. SIM, USIM. In this technology service logic is placed on the SIM card of GSM or USIM card of UMTS phone. Mobile agents are a technology from the late 90-ies where on top of a mobile agent platform you write applications (mobile agents) which can move in the network. Mobile agents have been proposed as a way to distribute Intelligent Network service logic. This technology does not offer special methods for service creation but agents are easy to write. VHE (Virtual Home Environment) is an effort which is standardized by 3GPP, but there are also many ex TINA people working on similar ideas. The intention is to provide the user everywhere with home environment, I.e., everything looks like at the home network. VHE is currently a combination of all possible technologies to create services. The VHE additions will be service, user, network and terminal profiles which are needed to give the user the home look and feel.
Service Creation, IN In the Intelligent Network, if we follow the approach of the standard - which may not be the case in practice - service creation proceeds as follows: IN CM (IN Conceptual Model) defines 4 planes. These are design planes for creating services: In the Service Plane the service is described in words and a service is composed of service features. It is better to use existing service features as on a capability set of IN the defined service features can be implemented, other would require creation of new building blocks. For instance to create a Portable Number service we might use Local Number Portability and Universal Call Transfer, to create Caller-ID based services we might use service features for screening, routing and authentication. In general, definition of services is up to the operator, but services should normally be composed of existing service features. In the Global Functional Plane the services are realized as a chain of SIBs (Service Independent Building blocks). Some vendors offer an graphical interface SCE (Service Creation Environment) which has
Service Creation, IN Graphical objects from which the SIB chain is made. These objects may be standard SIBs as in the IN standard, or something more or less similar, like logic diagrams. Anyway, in GFP the service is a chain of SIBs starting from the BCP (Basic Call Process) - describing in a logical way processing of a call - from some POI (Point of Initialization) and ending to one or more POR (Point of Return). In the Distributed Functional Plane the BCP is described as two automatons BCSM (Basic Call State Machine),originating and terminating. (In each switch there are the two automatons and the call establishment is jumping from one switch to another, but we need to worry only about that switch which executes the IN part of call processing.) The SIB chain is mapped in not one-to-one way to FEAs (Functional Entity Actions) and IF (Information Flows). There are many ways this mapping can be made. The FEAs are basic functionalities of Functional Entities (FE). There are a small number of functional entities in IN. They are SSF (Service Switching Function), SCF (Service Control Function), SDF (Service Data Function) and SRF (Specialized Resource Function).
Service Creation, IN SSF is an extension of the functionality of a telephone switch so, that it can communicate with SCF. SCF is capable of running service logic programs (SLP), also called scripts.The SLPs contain the actions the service should do,like translate an 800-number to another number, check credit card number in a credit card call etc. SCF needs some data. This data,like the valid credit card number, is stored into a database realizing SDF. SRF is a set of functionalities for giving the caller voice responses, collecting digits from the caller’s phone, recognizing voice etc. A main problem in the DFP is to map the SIB chain into detection points in the BCSM. The POI and POR points map either to the states of the state automaton BCSM or to places before the states called detection points. There are two types of detection points TDPs (Trigger Detection Points) and EDPs (Event Detection Points). To TDPs it is possible to set some trigger rules in order to start a dialog between SSF and SCF. The EDPs are used for instance when a call returns to POR continue call processing.
Service Creation, IN In the Physical Plane (PL) the information flows are realized as protocols and the Functional Entities are placed into physical network elements. The IN CS1 contains the following physical entities: SSP (Service Switching Point), it is a telephone switch with SSF functionality; SCP (Service Control Point), it is a computer running service logic programs, SCP contains the functionality of SCF, but often it also contains SDF. There may be a stand-alone database SDP (Service Data Point). There is a faster version of SCP called Adjunct (AD), it is like SCP but connected to SSP via a fast link. SCP is connected to SSP via SS7 network. SRF can be placed in a special devise IP (Intelligent Periferial), but it can also be placed in SSP. It is also possible to place SCF to SSP, then the SSP is called SSCP, joint SSP and SCP. There are more functionalities in IN CS2 and CS3. The information flows are realized by the INAP protocol (IN Appilication Part). INAP runs on top of TCAP, which is on SCCP and SCCP is on MTP3. TCAP, SCCP and MTP3-1 are the parts of SS7. There is usually no need to change INAP when making a new service, though operators have their modified versions of INAP.
Service Creation, Camel Service creation in Camel (Customized applications for mobile enhanced logic) is quite similar to service creation in IN. Camel enables interworking of IN and GSM so, that roaming GSM users can use their home services via IN. Camel introduces Camel SCF, called gsmSCF, and a new functionality to MSC (Mobile Switching Center) called gsmSSF. Camel services are provided as in IN: when a Camel call comes to MSC with gsmSSF, the gsmSSF starts a dialog with gsmSCF using a simplified version of INAP called CAP (Camel Application Part). As GSM users are mobile, there is needed an additional operation, which is added to MAP (Mobile Application Part): gsmSCF can at any time make the AnyTimeInterrogation from gsmSCF to HLR (Home Location Register) in order to ask HLR for some information it needs. Often creation of Camel services is made with a Service Creation Environment with SIBs. There are the same problems of deciding where to put trigger tables to Trigger Detection Points in the BCSM, but the Camel BCSM is at least more simple than the IN BCSM. Camel is now at phase 3. The standards can be downloaded from ETSI, but a warning, there are many standards in Camel.
Service Creation, TINA Service creation using TINA is relevant even though TINA is stopped as the OOD ideas have not disappeared. One is supposed to follow the ODP four viewpoints and define first (in the Enterprise viewpoint) the business model with the roles of the players. The next viewpoint (Information viewpoint) is to draw class diagrams with OMT (Object Modeling Technique), or UML, and sequence diagrams. In the Computational viewpoint one is describing computational objects and their interfaces. These interfaces are described in IDL, CORBA’s interface definition language. Then the service is coded with some programming language. The difference to IN is that there is no separation between application development and service creation. In IN creation of a service usually will not require coding. In TINA it is coding a new application. TINA approach to service creation is inherently complicated and the architecture is so large that it cannot be seen to support fast service creation. Still, there can be useful concepts in TINA, like the service session interface, Dolmen mobility solution etc.
Service Creation, CORBA and mobile agents TINA being so complicated, there have been attempts to create services using CORBA middleware platform but no TINA. With CORBA there are services and facilities that can be used for service creation. Also in this approach service creation is application development along ODP and OOD methodology. Some of the services, like ODP Trader can be interesting, however, one should notice, that CORBA does not support mobility very well. CORBA may be used to interface PSTN to IP, access databases etc. Mobile agent technology is one possibility. Then services are created in a suitable language, often Java, as objects on top of a mobile agent platform. The mobile agents move with simple instructions,like move to target system. Mobile agents have agent languages facilitating agent communication. There are no special guidelines for implementing services using mobile agents. Consider it one form of writing an application in Java with the difference that the object is capable of moving and agents can be forming an agent society.
Service Creation, Parley, OSA, Jain In all these approaches service creation is made more easy by providing a Parley API, by which network resources can be used. Therefore the approach concentrates on services which need network resources. In order to create an application, the creator is describing his service with a sequence chart with Parley messages/method calls, like authenticate, discover, sign etc. Parley defines in addition to the Framework also Service Components, it can be compared to capability sets of IN in this respect. One can use the service components as service features and create desired services by describing the service as a message sequence chart. OSA is quite similar to Parley and service creation according to OSA will be even more similar in the future, at the moment OSA has adopted a subset of Parley APIs. OSA is originally strongly connected with the VHE (Virtual Home Environment) concept, but currently there are also other approaches to VHE than 3GPP VHE, for instance VHE by the Vesper EU-project.
Service Creation, Conclusions There are other possibilities for service creation including WAP MExE USIM TSAS (OMGs Telecommunication Service Access and Subscription specification) It is not possible to go into the details of these technologies in the scope of this lecture. It suffices to say that service creation is an area which is fast developing. There is need for service creation methods by which more services can be fast introduced. There is an equally problematic area of service management. It is connected with network management as service management is logically a part of network management. However, a large number of services, which are fast introduced may add special problems. In general, there is always the problem that a new service interacts in an unexpected way with existing services,