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Creation, Interaction and Expansion of Economic Systems Classical Era 600 BCE- 600 CE.

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Presentation on theme: "Creation, Interaction and Expansion of Economic Systems Classical Era 600 BCE- 600 CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creation, Interaction and Expansion of Economic Systems Classical Era 600 BCE- 600 CE

2 Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns before 600 CE What are the four most well known ancient trade routes? Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (c BCE – Present) Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (c. 800 BCE – Present) Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (c. 300 BCE – Present) Eurasian Silk Road (c. 200 BCE – Present)

3 Trade Networks in the Classical Era Silk Roads roads linked China, India, and Mesopotamia trade often facilitated by Central Asian herders (middle- men) roads extended by Romans to include the Mediterranean region important route that gave access to luxury goods and exotic spices from the East to the West Nomads linked to more advanced civilizations through their participation in trade (often offering use of their animals) allowed the diffusion of ideas (including religious beliefs and scientific discoveries), goods, technology, and diseases

4 The Silk Roads Cotton

5 Trade Networks in the Classical Era Indian Ocean Trade an extension of the Silk Roads that allowed trade primarily between China, India, and Africa sea merchants/sailors from China, India, Persia, Africa, Southeast Asia movement possible from monsoon winds to go from section to section across the Indian Ocean

6 Trade Networks in the Classical Era



9 Trans-Saharan Trade trade across the Sahara desert use of camel caravans to cross the desert primarily exchange of salt and palm oil for gold and ivory significant in that sub-Saharan Africa was linked to North Africa and therefore the Mediterranean trade routes, as well as the silk roads that the Romans extended into North Africa

10 Trade Networks in the Classical Era

11 Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns before 600 CE TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE ROUTES

12 Bantu Migrations Iron working Clay sculptures Islam Christianity To Rome Kola nuts & Palm oil gold salt copper, cloth, weapons, manuf. goods camel herders exotic animals, wheat, olives Early History Sahara-forest/deforestation -economy: hunting societies, cattle herders, horse herders/chariots -culture: -Griots-story tellers, passed history down -dancing, masks, drums - Rock art Kings Of Ghana -controlled salt/gold trade -resisted Islam influx -fell 1076 to Arab Muslims Bantu Migrations -Proto-Bantu – parent tongue – 900 languages -farmers, herders/knowledge of iron -moved south & east – pop. Increases. Looking for fertile land Geographically diverse -Mediterranean -desert -rainforest -savannah -mountains obstacles to unification and communication Axum --controlled internat’l trade (ivory, gold, emeralds, salt, manf. goods, iron, copper) -cosmopolitan cities (Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian)

13 Camel Caravans linked Red Sea ports to Arabia by land

14 Trade in the Classical Era Mediterranean Sea Lanes Originated by Phoenician Sea-faring traders (c BCE), expanded/intensified by the Romans Centered on the Phoenician trade centers of Carthage, Cyrene and Tyre, later Rome, Constantinople Travel by sea was usually by means of a man-powered vessel with oars Roman navy protected the sea lanes Pax Romana- era of peace and prosperity, when trade flourished


16 Roman grain trade

17 Roman Mediterranean trade


19 NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATED LONG DISTANCE TRADE YOKES Wooden beam that allows work animals to pull together. SADDLES Supportive apparatus to support riders on horses, camels, etc. STIRRUPS After the Chariot & Saddle, it's the most important advancement in warfare prior to gunpowder. LATEEN SAILS Triangular sail dating back to the Roman Mediterranean and used heavily in the Indian Ocean trade. DHOW SHIPS: Ships with one or more Lateen sails primarily used in the Indian Ocean trade.

20 THINGS TRADED ALONGSIDE GOODS: RICE The most important crop for human consumption today. COTTON Accounts for 2.5% of earth’s arable land today. QANAT SYSTEM Provides water in arid climates. Spread from Iran to North Africa and the rest of Asia where many people depend on the Qanat for water. DISEASES PLAGUE OF GALEN Smallpox killed 5 million people (1/3 of the population) in Rome in 165 CE. PLAGUE OF JUSTINIAN Bubonic Plague in 541 CE killed 40% of Constantinople & spread killing 25 million worldwide. PLAGUE OF CYPRIAN Smallpox outbreak in 250 CE that lasted 20 years, killed the Emperor, and was blamed on

21 THINGS TRADED ALONGSIDE GOODS: Religion CHRISTIANITY Took on a structure like the Roman Empire and adding the “Trinity” BUDDHISM Buddhism took on different characteristics wherever it spread (China, SE Asia, Japan) HINDUISM SE Asian societies made Hinduism fit their history/society.

22 The spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE




26 Classical Civilizations Han China – Monopolized production of iron, salt, and liquor – Rise of the Silk Road Mauryan India – Ashoka built irrigation systems and roads to promote trade Mayans – Terrace farming improved production of cotton, maize, and cacao

27 Classical Civilizations Ancient Greece – Cities, such as Athens, become centers of trade – Economy depended heavily on slavery Rome – Latifundia – large landed estates focused on commercial agriculture (olive oil, wine, wheat) North Africa was the major grain producing region – Depended on slave labor – Roman roads promoted trade and linked empire to Silk Road

28 Classical era labor systems China – Free peasants were the backbone of the labor force Peasants ranked just below bureaucrats but above artisans and merchants – Qin Shi Huangdi ended the manorial system “Recruited” labor to build the Great Wall – Silk weaving supplemented farm income “Men as tiller, woman as weaver” – During the Han dynasty, slaves made up less than 1% of the total population

29 Classical era labor systems Greece & Rome – Slaves made up 1/3 of the population – Slaves worked as domestic servants, miners, and farmers In Greece, slaves could serve as tutors In Rome, development of commercial agriculture led to the rise of slavery Rome also used slaves as gladiators and chariot racers

30 Classical era labor systems India – Caste system was based largely on job classification Farmers did not rank high in prestige Merchants had a higher social standing than they did in China or the Mediterranean – Slaves played almost no role in the economy Sudras (lowest caste) and untouchables took the place of slaves

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