Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Evolution Aims: Must be able to state the different forms of evidence for evolution. Should be able to explain the importance of analogy, homology."— Presentation transcript:
Evidence of Evolution Aims: Must be able to state the different forms of evidence for evolution. Should be able to explain the importance of analogy, homology and vestigial structures in tracking evolution. Could be able to explain how different techniques are used as evidence of evolution.
Comparative Anatomy The pentadactyl (5 digit) limb found in most vertebrates has the same general bone structure. This similarity of structure is called homology. Homologies are indicative of common ancestry. Femur (thigh) Fibula Tibia Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (sole) Phalanges (toes) Hind LimbForelimb Humerus (upper arm) Ulna Radius Carpals (wrist) Metacarpals (palm) Phalanges (fingers) Note that forelimbs and hind limbs have different names for equivalent bones.
Homologous Structures In many vertebrates, basic pentadactyl limb has been highly modified to serve specialized locomotory functions. Homologies also indicate adaptive radiation Basic limb plan adapted to meet needs of different niches. The same pattern of bones comprising the pentadactyl limb can be seen on each of these examples. Bird's wing Bat's wing Human arm Dog's front leg Mole's forelimb Seal's flipper
On the Other Hand
Activity Answer the questions on page 349 in the Biozone books.
Analogous Structures Not all similarities between species are inherited from a common ancestor. Structures that have the same function in different organisms may come from quite different origins = Analogy. Analogous structures do not imply an evolutionary relationship, but may indicate convergence. Examples: Eye structure in octopus and mammals. Wings in birds and butterflies. Fins in fish and flippers in mammals Fins Flippers Wings
Analogy in Eye Structure Eyes in cephalopods (such as octopus) and mammals have the same function and are structurally similar, but have evolved from different origins. Mammalian eye Iris Lens Cornea Retina Iris Lens Cornea Octopus eye
Vestigial Organs Many organisms have degenerate structures that no longer perform the same function as in other organisms. These organs must have been important in some ancestral form, but became redundant in later species. The selection pressure for complete loss is weak so the structures remain in a reduced form. Although vestigial organs apparently have little use, they may perform some secondary function. The wings of kiwi are tiny vestiges and useless. In snakes, one lobe of the lung is vestigial and, in some species, there are also vestiges of the pelvic girdle and hind limbs. The vestigial eyes of burrowing animals are no longer used for vision.
Vestigial Organs in Whales Whales are the descendants of large, four- legged land mammals that took up an aquatic existence some 60 million years ago. Over many millions of years, the pelvis and femur of whales have become very small and no longer fulfill a locomotory function. Pelvis Femur Hindlimb Forelimb
Whale Ancestors Basilosaurus (Late Eocene) Protocetus (Eocene) Pakicetus (Middle Eocene) Cladogram of Whale Ancestors The fossil record exhibiting whale evolution is extensive and well represented by skeletons that show much of their anatomy. Red lines represents fossil record for the genus Black lines represent cladistic relationship (probable relatedness)
Activity Answer the questions on page 350 in the Biozone books.
Comparative Embryology Compare the embryonic development of different vertebrates: Evident that more closely related forms continue to appear similar until a later stage. More distantly related forms show earlier variation. Developmental Stage AmphibianBirdMonkeyHuman Fertilized egg Late cleavage Body segments Limb buds Late fetal Gill slits
DNA Hybridization One way to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a species is using DNA hybridization. In this technique, the DNA from different species is ‘unzipped’ and recombined to form hybrid DNA. Heat can be used to separate the hybridized strands. The amount of heat required to do this is a measure of how similar the two DNA strands are (% bonding). EXAMPLE: The relationships among the New World vultures and storks has been determined on the basis of DNA hybridization.
DNA Hybridization DNA Difference Score Millions of years ago Shoebill Flamingo Stork Pelican Ibis New World vulture
DNA Hybridization Method DNA is isolated from blood samples from each species: Greater similarity in the DNA base sequences = stronger attraction between the two strands and harder to separate. A crude measure of DNA relatedness can be achieved by measuring how hard it is to separate the hybrid DNA. This is done by finding the temperature at which it unzips into single strands again (in this case it would be 83.6°C). Extract human DNAExtract chimpanzee DNA Some of the opposing bases in the DNA sequence do not match Mix strands to form a hybrid Unzip the DNA using heat (both human and chimpanzee DNA unwinds at 86°C)
Activity Answer the questions on page 344 in the Biozone books.
DNA Sequencing Recent advanced techniques have enabled the sequence of DNA in different species to be determined. Species thought to be closely related on the basis of other evidence, were found to have a greater percentage of DNA sequences in common. Humans and chimpanzees have a 97.6% similarity in their DNA sequences and are very closely related. An interesting finding was that the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is more closely matched than that of chimpanzees and gorillas.
Amino Acid Sequencing Sequences of amino acids in certain proteins (e.g. haemoglobin and cytochrome C) have revealed great similarities and specific differences between species. Closely related species have proteins with similar amino acid sequences. Amino acid sequences are determined by inherited genes and differences are due to mutations. The degree of similarity of these proteins is determined by the number of mutations that have occurred. Distantly related species have had more time for differences to accumulate: The greater the elapsed time since common ancestry, the greater the time for mutations to occur. This in turn leads to a greater difference in amino acid sequences between species.
Primate No. of amino acids different from humans Position of changed amino acids ChimpanzeeIdentical– Gorilla1104 Gibbon380 87 125 Rhesus monkey89 13 33 50 76 87 104 125 Squirrel monkey95 6 9 21 22 56 76 87 125 Amino Acid Sequencing Amino acid differences for beta-haemoglobin in primates compared to the human sequence: The 'position of changed amino acids' is the point in the protein, composed of 146 amino acids, at which a different amino acid occurs.
Activity Answer the questions on page 346 in the Biozone books.
Immunological Techniques Immunology indirectly measures the degree of similarity of proteins in different species. EXAMPLE: Anti-human antibodies are developed in a rabbit and added to the blood of other species. The greater the similarity between humans and the blood of other species the greater the antibody-antigen reaction.
Immunological Studies Decreasing recognition of anti-human antibodies to blood proteins Human serum injected into rabbit Method for Immunological Comparison 1. Human blood serum (containing blood proteins but no cells) injected into a rabbit. The rabbit forms antibodies that identify the human blood proteins, attach to them, and render them harmless. 2. A sample of the rabbit's blood is taken and the antibodies are extracted. 3. These anti-human antibodies are added to blood samples from other species to see how well they recognize the proteins in the blood of different species. The more similar the blood to human blood, the greater the reaction (which takes the form of creating a precipitate, i.e. solids). Rabbit serum with anti-human antibodies extracted Human Gorilla Baboon Lemur Rat Rabbit serum added to blood of other species Precipitate forms
Immunological Evidence The evolutionary relationships of a large number of different animal groups have been established on the basis of immunology. The results support the phylogenies developed from other areas of biology: biogeography, comparative anatomy, morphological studies, and fossil evidence. Example: relatedness of tree frogs. The phylogeny (evolutionary relationships) of tree frogs has been established by immunology. The immunological distance is the number of amino acid substitutions between taxa. 50403020100 3020100 Millions of years ago Immunological Comparison of Tree Frogs Immunological distance North American tree frogs Europe an tree frogs Cricket frog Chorus frogs Australi an tree frog
Activity Answer the questions on page 338 in the Biozone books.
Biogeographical Evidence The study of plant and animal distribution is called biogeography. The basic principle of biogeography is that each plant and animal species originated only once. The place where this occurred is the centre of origin. The range of a species can be very restricted or, as with humans, almost the whole world (cosmopolitan). Regions that have been separated from the rest of the world for a long time (e.g. Madagascar, Australia, and New Zealand), often have distinctive biota comprising a large number of endemic species (species that are found nowhere else).
Biogeographical Evidence General principles for the dispersal and distribution of land animals are: Closely related animals in different geographic areas probably had no barrier to dispersal in the past. The most effective barrier to dispersal in land animals is sea (as when sea levels change). The discontinuous distribution of modern species may be explained by movement out of the area they originally occupied, or by extinction. Oceanic islands often have species that are similar to, but distinct from, those on neighboring continents. The occurrence of these species suggests that they were island colonizers that evolved in isolation differently to their ancestors on the mainland.
Biogeography-Camel Family The camel family comprises six modern-day species that have survived on three continents: Arabian camel Bactrian camel Llama Vicuña Alpaca Guanaco There are no surviving species on their continent of origin, North America, where they emerged about 40 million years ago and later dispersed to other continents.
Biogeography-Camel Family Camel ancestor in North America 40 million years ago Four llama species: llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña Land bridge across the Bering Strait 1 million years ago Bactrian camel Camelus bactrianus Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Llama Lama glama Vicuña Vicugna vicugna Recent distribution Tertiary distribution Guanaco Lama guanicoe
Activity Answer the questions on pages 340/1 and 367 in the Biozone books.