Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Evolution Aims:"— Presentation transcript:
1Evidence of Evolution Aims: Must be able to state the different forms of evidence for evolution.Should be able to explain the importance of analogy, homology and vestigial structures in tracking evolution.Could be able to explain how different techniques are used as evidence of evolution.
2Comparative AnatomyForelimbHind LimbThe pentadactyl (5 digit) limb found in most vertebrates has the same general bone structure.This similarity of structure is called homology.Homologies are indicative of common ancestry.Humerus (upper arm)Femur (thigh)UlnaFibulaRadiusTibiaCarpals (wrist)Tarsals(ankle)Metacarpals(palm)Metatarsals(sole)Phalanges (fingers)Phalanges (toes)Note that forelimbs and hind limbs have different names for equivalent bones.
3Homologous Structures Bird's wingMole's forelimbIn many vertebrates, basic pentadactyl limb has been highly modified to serve specialized locomotory functions.Homologies also indicate adaptive radiationBasic limb plan adapted to meet needs of different niches.The same pattern of bones comprising the pentadactyl limb can be seen on each of these examples.Dog's front legHuman armBat's wingSeal's flipper
5ActivityAnswer the questions on page 349 in the Biozone books.
6Analogous StructuresFinsNot all similarities between species are inherited from a common ancestor.Structures that have the same function in different organisms may come from quite different origins = Analogy.Analogous structures do not imply an evolutionary relationship, but may indicate convergence. Examples:Eye structure in octopus and mammals.Wings in birds and butterflies.Fins in fish and flippers in mammalsFlippersWings
7Analogy in Eye Structure Eyes in cephalopods (such as octopus) and mammals have the same function and are structurally similar, but have evolved from different origins.Mammalian eyeIrisLensCorneaRetinaRetinaIrisLensCorneaOctopus eye
8Vestigial OrgansMany organisms have degenerate structures that no longer perform the same function as in other organisms.These organs must have been important in some ancestral form, but became redundant in later species.The selection pressure for complete loss is weak so the structures remain in a reduced form.Although vestigial organs apparently have little use, they may perform some secondary function.The wings of kiwi are tiny vestiges and useless.In snakes, one lobe of the lung is vestigial and, in some species, there are also vestiges of the pelvic girdle and hind limbs.The vestigial eyes of burrowing animals are no longer used for vision.
9Vestigial Organs in Whales PelvisFemurHindlimbWhales are the descendants of large, four- legged land mammals that took up an aquatic existence some 60 million years ago.Over many millions of years, the pelvis and femur of whales have become very small and no longer fulfill a locomotory function.Forelimb
10Cladogram of Whale Ancestors The fossil record exhibiting whale evolution is extensive and well represented by skeletons that show much of their anatomy.Pakicetus (Middle Eocene)Black lines represent cladistic relationship (probable relatedness)Protocetus (Eocene)Basilosaurus (Late Eocene)Red lines represents fossil record for the genus
11ActivityAnswer the questions on page 350 in the Biozone books.
12Comparative Embryology Developmental StageAmphibianBirdMonkeyHumanFertilized eggLate cleavageBody segmentsLimb budsLate fetalCompare the embryonic development of different vertebrates:Evident that more closely related forms continue to appear similar until a later stage.More distantly related forms show earlier variation.Gill slits
13DNA HybridizationOne way to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a species is using DNA hybridization.In this technique, the DNA from different species is ‘unzipped’ and recombined to form hybrid DNA.Heat can be used to separate the hybridized strands. The amount of heat required to do this is a measure of how similar the two DNA strands are (% bonding).EXAMPLE:The relationships among the New World vultures and storks has been determined on the basis of DNA hybridization.
14DNA Hybridization Stork Millions of years ago DNA Difference Score ShoebillFlamingoStorkIbisPelicanNew World vultureMillions of years agoDNA Difference Score
15DNA Hybridization Method DNA is isolated from blood samples from each species:Greater similarity in the DNA base sequences = stronger attraction between the two strands and harder to separate.A crude measure of DNA relatedness can be achieved by measuring how hard it is to separate the hybrid DNA.This is done by finding the temperature at which it unzips into single strands again (in this case it would be 83.6°C).Extract human DNAExtract chimpanzee DNAUnzip the DNA using heat (both human and chimpanzee DNA unwinds at 86°C)Mix strands toform a hybridSome of the opposing bases in the DNA sequence do not match
16ActivityAnswer the questions on page 344 in the Biozone books.
17DNA SequencingRecent advanced techniques have enabled the sequence of DNA in different species to be determined.Species thought to be closely related on the basis of other evidence, were found to have a greater percentage of DNA sequences in common.Humans and chimpanzees have a 97.6% similarity in their DNA sequences and are very closely related.An interesting finding was that the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is more closely matched than that of chimpanzees and gorillas.
18Amino Acid SequencingSequences of amino acids in certain proteins (e.g. haemoglobin and cytochrome C) have revealed great similarities and specific differences between species.Closely related species have proteins with similar amino acid sequences.Amino acid sequences are determined by inherited genes and differences are due to mutations.The degree of similarity of these proteins is determined by the number of mutations that have occurred. Distantly related species have had more time for differences to accumulate:The greater the elapsed time since common ancestry, the greater the time for mutations to occur.This in turn leads to a greater difference in amino acid sequences between species.
19No. of amino acids different from humans Amino Acid SequencingAmino acid differences for beta-haemoglobin in primates compared to the human sequence:PrimateNo. of amino acids different from humansPosition ofchanged amino acidsChimpanzeeIdentical–Gorilla1104Gibbon3Rhesus monkey8Squirrel monkey9The 'position of changed amino acids' is the point in the protein, composed of 146 amino acids, at which a different amino acid occurs.
20ActivityAnswer the questions on page 346 in the Biozone books.
21Immunological Techniques Immunology indirectly measures the degree of similarity of proteins in different species.EXAMPLE: Anti-human antibodies are developed in a rabbit and added to the blood of other species.The greater the similarity between humans and the blood of other species the greater the antibody-antigen reaction.
22Immunological Studies Rabbit serum with anti-human antibodies extractedHuman seruminjected into rabbitMethod for Immunological ComparisonHuman blood serum (containing blood proteins but no cells) injected into a rabbit. The rabbit forms antibodies that identify the human blood proteins, attach to them, and render them harmless.2. A sample of the rabbit's blood is taken and the antibodies are extracted.3. These anti-human antibodies are added to blood samples from other species to see how well they recognize the proteins in the blood of different species. The more similar the blood to human blood, the greater the reaction (which takes the form of creating a precipitate, i.e. solids).HumanGorillaBaboonLemurRatRabbit serum added to blood of other speciesPrecipitate formsDecreasing recognition of anti-human antibodies to blood proteins
23Immunological Evidence The evolutionary relationships of a large number of different animal groups have been established on the basis of immunology.The results support the phylogenies developed from other areas of biology: biogeography, comparative anatomy, morphological studies, and fossil evidence.Example: relatedness of tree frogs.The phylogeny (evolutionary relationships) of tree frogs has been established by immunology.The immunological distance is the number of amino acid substitutions between taxa.5040302010Millions of years agoImmunological Comparison of Tree FrogsImmunological distanceNorth American tree frogsEuropean tree frogsCricket frogChorus frogsAustralian tree frog
24ActivityAnswer the questions on page 338 in the Biozone books.
25Biogeographical Evidence The study of plant and animal distribution is called biogeography.The basic principle of biogeography is that each plant and animal species originated only once. The place where this occurred is the centre of origin.The range of a species can be very restricted or, as with humans, almost the whole world (cosmopolitan).Regions that have been separated from the rest of the world for a long time (e.g. Madagascar, Australia, and New Zealand), often have distinctive biota comprising a large number of endemic species (species that are found nowhere else).
26Biogeographical Evidence General principles for the dispersal and distribution of land animals are:Closely related animals in different geographic areas probably had no barrier to dispersal in the past.The most effective barrier to dispersal in land animals is sea (as when sea levels change).The discontinuous distribution of modern species may be explained by movement out of the area they originally occupied, or by extinction.Oceanic islands often have species that are similar to, but distinct from, those on neighboring continents.The occurrence of these species suggests that they were island colonizers that evolved in isolation differently to their ancestors on the mainland.
27Biogeography-Camel Family The camel family comprises six modern-day species that have survived on three continents:Arabian camelBactrian camelLlamaVicuñaAlpacaGuanacoThere are no surviving species on their continent of origin, North America, where they emerged about 40 million years ago and later dispersed to other continents.
28Biogeography-Camel Family LlamaLama glamaArabian camelCamelus dromedariusRecent distributionTertiary distributionCamel ancestor in North America 40 million years agoFour llama species: llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuñaGuanacoLama guanicoeLand bridge across the Bering Strait 1 million years agoBactrian camelCamelus bactrianusVicuñaVicugna vicugna
29ActivityAnswer the questions on pages 340/1 and 367 in the Biozone books.