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Compassionate slaughter of animals Peter Stevenson Compassion in World Farming.

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1 Compassionate slaughter of animals Peter Stevenson Compassion in World Farming

2 Arrival at the slaughterhouse: unloading Often no ramps are used to unload animals, forcing them to jump, fall or be thrown off No ramp: the two men pushed and pulled the camel until it fell off the truck to the ground © Animals Australia The camel is then dragged into the slaughterhouse

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4 Ramp too steep and no side-protection © Eyes on Animals & Animal Welfare Foundation

5 Moving animals in the slaughterhouse Cattle are often beaten with sticks or poles to force them to move - this is unacceptable © Animals Australia This animal is beaten so hard that it collapses

6 In Lebanon sheep are dragged by rear leg to slaughter point – this is a common practice in many slaughterhouses At slaughter point animals are thrown on their back in readiness for throat cutting

7 In Egypt cattle are beaten on the head with a pole. It can take several blows before the animal is so dazed that it falls to the ground when its throat is cut.

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9 In Egypt the leg tendons of cattle are often slashed to control the animals © Animals Australia

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11 In Egypt cattle’s eyes are sometimes gouged to control them Ismailia, Egypt: live animal with stabbed eyes and cut leg tendons © Animals Australia

12 In Lebanon cattle are suspended from a rear leg in readiness for throat cut These two cattle were left suspended for over an hour before their throats were cut

13 In Turkey cattle are suspended for throat cutting © Eyes on Animals & Animal Welfare Foundation

14 Sokhna, Egypt: Conscious animal being inverted in readiness for throat cut © Animals Australia

15 West Bank: After throat cutting, but before the animals lose consciousness they are dropped out of the box, on top of the bodies of other (still conscious) animals © Animals Australia

16 Do not start any procedures on the animal until it is dead Considerable time gap between throat cut and death Do not start any procedures (e.g. pumping air between sheep’s body & its fleece) after the throat cut until the absence of signs of life has been verified

17 Do not start any procedures on the animal until it is dead Sokhna, Egypt: animal hoisted after throat cut while it is still conscious © Animals Australia

18 Some slaughtermen do not perform a proper full cut across the throat. Instead they simply stab the knife into the neck. Even after several such stabs, the animals remain standing on all four legs while they slowly bleed from a small hole in the throat. Eventually – sometimes minutes after the first stab - the animals collapse to the ground. © Animals Australia

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20 Suffering when throat is cut Cutting throat of conscious animal causes extreme pain: –during throat cut –in the period between throat cut and loss of consciousness European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): “The rapid decrease in blood pressure which follows the blood loss is readily detected by the conscious animal and elicits fear and panic. Poor welfare also results when conscious animals inhale blood because of bleeding into the trachea [windpipe]”

21 How long does it take after throat cut for animal to lose ability to feel pain? Even if the correct blood vessels are cut it can take 2 minutes for cattle and 20 seconds for sheep to lose sensibility If main blood vessels are not severed it can take much longer – – it can take cattle about 5 minutes –it can take sheep 70 seconds to lose sensibility where only one carotid artery is severed - where only the jugular veins are severed, it can take about 5 minutes

22 Cattle: Time in minutes from throat cut to loss of sensibility

23 Sheep: time in minutes from throat cut to loss of sensibility

24 Stunning prevents the suffering involved in the throat cut and the period between the cut and loss of sensibility A stun makes the animal instantaneously unconscious. This unconsciousness must last until the throat is cut and the animal dies through loss of blood

25 Electrical stunning Must be head-only so that animal is alive – but unconscious – at time of throat cut © FAO

26 Electrical stunning equipment Electrode position for sheep (front view) Electrode position for sheep (side view) © Humane Slaughter Association Sheep/goats minimum stunning current: 1 Amp minimum application time of stun: 3 seconds

27 Head-only electrical stunning of cattle Cattle Cattle over 6 months: minimum stunning current: 1.5 amps Cattle under 6 months: minimum stunning current: 1.25 amps minimum application time of stun: 3 seconds

28 Head-only electrical stunning is reversible It does not kill, it simply makes the animal unconscious Sheep begin to recover about 30 seconds after the stun Cattle begin to recover about 45 seconds after the stun (calves after about 40 seconds) Signs of recovery: return of rhythmic breathing

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30 Vital to have short time gap between stun and throat cut Because animals will recover from the stun quite quickly, the time gap between the stun and the throat cut must be as short as possible – the maximum should be 15 seconds If the time gap between stunning and throat cutting is too long, the animal may regain consciousness as it bleeds to death

31 Non-penetrative captive bolt stunning for cattle Position for non-penetrative captive bolt © Humane Slaughter Association Non-penetrative captive bolt stunning is reversible, so it is vital to keep the time gap between the stun and the throat cut as short as possible – the maximum should be 20 seconds (this is figure in OIE standards)

32 Loss of blood not reduced by stunning Studies by Dr Haluk Anil and other scientists compared slaughter of sheep and cattle with and without stunning Sheep and cattle: bleed out is not adversely affected by stunning, nor improved by neck cutting without stunning

33 Beating them Unacceptable way of restraining cattle Severing leg tendons Suspending them Cattle should be placed in a restraining box © Temple Grandin © Eyes on Animals & Animal Welfare Foundation © Animals Australia

34 © FAO Cattle should be restrained before stunning Cattle stunning box

35 Cattle should be restrained for slaughter without stunning Small, tame cattle can be held – calmly – while they are slaughtered In a standing position. But most cattle should be restrained. © Temple Grandin If cattle are not restrained, it is difficult to cut throat with one clean cut of the knife

36 Correct throat cutting Use a sharp knife Knife should be twice as long as width of neck area to be cut Do not sharpen knife in sight of animal Do not wipe blood off knife on fleece or hide Essential to sever both carotid arteries & both jugular veins Failure to do this leads to slower bleed out, slower death & increased suffering © Eyes on Animals & Animal Welfare Foundation

37 Practical advice on how to make improvements in the slaughterhouses, how to order a training course for employees, where to order better equipment to make floors anti-slip, prevent bulls from mounting etc...


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