Presentation on theme: "The Greeks -Enjoyed social aspects of dining"— Presentation transcript:
1The Greeks -Enjoyed social aspects of dining -Got together for banquets-Private Clubs called Lesche-Phatnai clubs catered to travelers,traders and visiting diplomats-Grapes, olives, bread from barley,dried fish, cheese, wine-Nourish the soul and body-Ate reclined on couches, enjoyed music,poetry and dancing-The Greeks believed that pleasure was the purposeof life and it was achieved through restraint and balance.Epicurious = Epicurean
2FABULOUS FEASTS OF THE ROMANS -282 BC conquered the lands around the Mediterranean Sea-Romans were opposite of the Greeks in discriminating tastes-Ordinary Citizens - barley, olive oil, pine nuts and fish-Aristocrats held enormous banquets filled with exotic foods such as humming bird tongues and camel’s heels-Main meal called cenna or dinner-Often more than 100 types of fish were served with wild boar, venison, ostrich, ducks and peacocks-Public dining undignified, only men in lowest classes went to taverns-Desire for exotic foods and spices increased trade and stretched the Roman Empire further east and north-Early cookbook Marcus Apicius -De Re Coquinaria (On Cooking) recipes still used today-He took great effort to obtain the most exotic foods possible, realized he would go broke and poisoned himself rather than die from hunger
3The Marvelous Middle Ages Ancient Nordic myths included the belief that trees weresacred and could not be cut down and that diverting riverwater for agriculture would displease the gods of the riversChristendom dispelled the fear and they cleared largetracts of land for hunting and farmingSerfs worked in the fieldsThey ate bread from wheat, peas (dried), turnips, onions,cabbage (sauerkraut), porkLandowner had large banquetsAll food arrived at the same timePeople ate with fingers or knivesLarge slices of stale bread called trenchers were usedinstead of plates - eaten at the end of the meal or given todogs who ate scraps and bones off the floor
4THE RENAISSANCEHerbs- aromatic plants were used for seasoning Thyme, rosemary and sageAristocracy craved spices (bark, root, seeds, bulbs or berries from aromatic plants)Noblemen instructed their cooks to use large amounts of spices in their foods to show off wealthMerchants in Venice held a monopoly on the spice tradePortuguese sailors sailed around South Africa to India and established a new spice routeChristopher Columbus- looking for a shorter route discovered AmericaFood preparation system we now call Haute CuisineHigher style of eating began in ItalyCatherine de Medici (Italian) married Henry II (France)Recipes for artichokes, spinach dishes, ice creamShe introduced the French to the ForkPeople carried their own silverware when they dined outCoffee from Africa- Coffeehouses sprang up in major citiesCafé opened in 1650 in Oxford EnglandPastries added, women were welcome
5GUILDSCooking guilds established many of the professional standards and traditions that exist today. Two of the oldest cooking guilds are the:Chaine de Rotissieres (roasters)Chaine de Traiteurs (caterers)(King Henry II went against food service guilds to continue operating his “restorantes”.)
6BOULANGER1765 Boulanger served hot soups in a café he called restaurers for their health restoring propertiesHe called his café restoranteDuring French Revolution large numbers of cooks and guild members were unemployed (employers dead or fled France) opened their own restaurantsBy early 1800s Paris had over 500 restaurants serving meals
7Georges Auguste Escoffier Marie-Antoine CaremePerfected the art of grand cuisine.Perfected the recipes for many fine French sauces and dishes like consomme, and pieces mountees.Trained many famous chefsGeorges Auguste Escoffier-Refined grand cuisine into classical cuisine.-Reorganized the kitchen into the kitchen brigade system.-Teamed up with Cesar Ritz to provide fine meals in luxury hotels Europe.-Classified sauces under the five grand sauces-Opened London’s Savoy Hotel with Cesar Ritz in 1898
8Industrial Revolution Families moved to cities to work in emerging factoriesPeople needed to live close to factories to walk to work, go home for lunch and dinnerSewage systems backed up, very unsanitaryParis began to run horse and buggy transit busesVitamins were discovered in 1919Fruit, vegetables and whole grain breads were considered poor man’s foodWealthy age meat, sauces, cheese and wine – suffered from gout (lack of iodine)Scientists invented chemical fertilizers and pesticidesRotate crops
9Which scientist discovered what? Appert Process of heating milk to remove harmful bacteria.Pasteur Canning to keep food freshsafe to eat.
10The Americas The Caribbean Islands -Tropical climate was good for growing foods like mango, papaya and coconut.-Fresh seafood was plentiful.-Flour, meat, olive oil, and spices were brought by European settlers.Latin America-Aztecs and Mayans cultivated corn, beans, tomatoes, squash, and potatoes thousands of years before European settlers arrived.-European settlers brought domesticated animals, wheat, and nuts like almonds.North America-Native American Indians introduced settlers to corn, beans, peanuts, pumpkins, vanilla, and red and green peppers.-American Indians taught European settlers new cooking techniques, like the clambake.
11The 20th Century in the United States -At the turn of the century, the high employment rate meant more and more people were eating out for lunch. Restaurants that specialized in serving lunch-time meals opened, like Savarin, Schrafft’s, and Child’s.-1930s - First White Castle opened; the beginning of the fast-food industry.-1940s and 1950s – Continued growth of fastfood restaurants; restaurants like McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken became popular.
12How do these trends in society affect food service? More women in the workplaceMore single adultsGreater nutritional awareness and healtheir living.Increase in concern for environmental issues.Desire for time-saving meals.
13Scientific Breakthroughs in Farming Aquaculture- is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditionOrganic farming- Crop or stock farming where only natural fertilisers, pesticides and nutritional supplements are used.Hormones and synthetics checmicals are not used at all.Hydroponic farming- is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, without soil.Genetic engineering- the set of techniques used to alter the genetic material of a cell or living organism.
14The Two Major Divisions of Food Service Commercial- Prepare food and beverages for a profit; includes restaurants, bars, supermarket delis, convenience stores, and lodging facilities.Noncommercial- Prepare and serve food as a supportive addition to the main purpose of the establishment; includes business and industry, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, airlines, and military.
15Foodservice Managers in the 21st Century Will Need….. Better administrative skillsThe ablility to work well with peopleTo be more involved in teaching, training, and motivating employees.Excellent interpersonal and communications skills.A greater awareness of environmental issues.To work with better-educated consumers who have concerns about nutrition and health.Greater computer proficiency.To effectively supervise a culturally diverse staff.To play a bigger role in waste management and recycling.