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The Greeks -Enjoyed social aspects of dining

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Presentation on theme: "The Greeks -Enjoyed social aspects of dining"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Greeks -Enjoyed social aspects of dining
-Got together for banquets -Private Clubs called Lesche -Phatnai clubs catered to travelers, traders and visiting diplomats -Grapes, olives, bread from barley, dried fish, cheese, wine -Nourish the soul and body -Ate reclined on couches, enjoyed music, poetry and dancing -The Greeks believed that pleasure was the purpose of life and it was achieved through restraint and balance. Epicurious = Epicurean

-282 BC conquered the lands around the Mediterranean Sea -Romans were opposite of the Greeks in discriminating tastes -Ordinary Citizens - barley, olive oil, pine nuts and fish -Aristocrats held enormous banquets filled with exotic foods such as humming bird tongues and camel’s heels -Main meal called cenna or dinner -Often more than 100 types of fish were served with wild boar, venison, ostrich, ducks and peacocks -Public dining undignified, only men in lowest classes went to taverns -Desire for exotic foods and spices increased trade and stretched the Roman Empire further east and north -Early cookbook Marcus Apicius -De Re Coquinaria (On Cooking) recipes still used today -He took great effort to obtain the most exotic foods possible, realized he would go broke and poisoned himself rather than die from hunger

3 The Marvelous Middle Ages
Ancient Nordic myths included the belief that trees were sacred and could not be cut down and that diverting river water for agriculture would displease the gods of the rivers Christendom dispelled the fear and they cleared large tracts of land for hunting and farming Serfs worked in the fields They ate bread from wheat, peas (dried), turnips, onions, cabbage (sauerkraut), pork Landowner had large banquets All food arrived at the same time People ate with fingers or knives Large slices of stale bread called trenchers were used instead of plates - eaten at the end of the meal or given to dogs who ate scraps and bones off the floor

4 THE RENAISSANCE Herbs- aromatic plants were used for seasoning Thyme, rosemary and sage Aristocracy craved spices (bark, root, seeds, bulbs or berries from aromatic plants) Noblemen instructed their cooks to use large amounts of spices in their foods to show off wealth Merchants in Venice held a monopoly on the spice trade Portuguese sailors sailed around South Africa to India and established a new spice route Christopher Columbus- looking for a shorter route discovered America Food preparation system we now call Haute Cuisine Higher style of eating began in Italy Catherine de Medici (Italian) married Henry II (France) Recipes for artichokes, spinach dishes, ice cream She introduced the French to the Fork People carried their own silverware when they dined out Coffee from Africa- Coffeehouses sprang up in major cities Café opened in 1650 in Oxford England Pastries added, women were welcome

5 GUILDS Cooking guilds established many of the professional standards and traditions that exist today. Two of the oldest cooking guilds are the: Chaine de Rotissieres (roasters) Chaine de Traiteurs (caterers) (King Henry II went against food service guilds to continue operating his “restorantes”.)

6 BOULANGER 1765 Boulanger served hot soups in a café he called restaurers for their health restoring properties He called his café restorante During French Revolution large numbers of cooks and guild members were unemployed (employers dead or fled France) opened their own restaurants By early 1800s Paris had over 500 restaurants serving meals

7 Georges Auguste Escoffier
Marie-Antoine Careme Perfected the art of grand cuisine. Perfected the recipes for many fine French sauces and dishes like consomme, and pieces mountees. Trained many famous chefs Georges Auguste Escoffier -Refined grand cuisine into classical cuisine. -Reorganized the kitchen into the kitchen brigade system. -Teamed up with Cesar Ritz to provide fine meals in luxury hotels Europe. -Classified sauces under the five grand sauces -Opened London’s Savoy Hotel with Cesar Ritz in 1898

8 Industrial Revolution
Families moved to cities to work in emerging factories People needed to live close to factories to walk to work, go home for lunch and dinner Sewage systems backed up, very unsanitary Paris began to run horse and buggy transit buses Vitamins were discovered in 1919 Fruit, vegetables and whole grain breads were considered poor man’s food Wealthy age meat, sauces, cheese and wine – suffered from gout (lack of iodine) Scientists invented chemical fertilizers and pesticides Rotate crops

9 Which scientist discovered what?
Appert Process of heating milk to remove harmful bacteria. Pasteur Canning to keep food fresh safe to eat.

10 The Americas The Caribbean Islands
-Tropical climate was good for growing foods like mango, papaya and coconut. -Fresh seafood was plentiful. -Flour, meat, olive oil, and spices were brought by European settlers. Latin America -Aztecs and Mayans cultivated corn, beans, tomatoes, squash, and potatoes thousands of years before European settlers arrived. -European settlers brought domesticated animals, wheat, and nuts like almonds. North America -Native American Indians introduced settlers to corn, beans, peanuts, pumpkins, vanilla, and red and green peppers. -American Indians taught European settlers new cooking techniques, like the clambake.

11 The 20th Century in the United States
-At the turn of the century, the high employment rate meant more and more people were eating out for lunch. Restaurants that specialized in serving lunch-time meals opened, like Savarin, Schrafft’s, and Child’s. -1930s - First White Castle opened; the beginning of the fast-food industry. -1940s and 1950s – Continued growth of fastfood restaurants; restaurants like McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken became popular.

12 How do these trends in society affect food service?
More women in the workplace More single adults Greater nutritional awareness and healtheir living. Increase in concern for environmental issues. Desire for time-saving meals.

13 Scientific Breakthroughs in Farming
Aquaculture- is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled condition Organic farming- Crop or stock farming where only natural fertilisers, pesticides and nutritional supplements are used.Hormones and synthetics checmicals are not used at all. Hydroponic farming- is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, without soil. Genetic engineering- the set of techniques used to alter the genetic material of a cell or living organism.

14 The Two Major Divisions of Food Service
Commercial- Prepare food and beverages for a profit; includes restaurants, bars, supermarket delis, convenience stores, and lodging facilities. Noncommercial- Prepare and serve food as a supportive addition to the main purpose of the establishment; includes business and industry, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, airlines, and military.

15 Foodservice Managers in the 21st Century Will Need…..
Better administrative skills The ablility to work well with people To be more involved in teaching, training, and motivating employees. Excellent interpersonal and communications skills. A greater awareness of environmental issues. To work with better-educated consumers who have concerns about nutrition and health. Greater computer proficiency. To effectively supervise a culturally diverse staff. To play a bigger role in waste management and recycling.

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