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4/21/20152 ISLAMIC SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT QUALITY Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Shan Plaza,

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Presentation on theme: "4/21/20152 ISLAMIC SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT QUALITY Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Shan Plaza,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 4/21/20152 ISLAMIC SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT QUALITY Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Shan Plaza, New Garden Town, Lahore

3 4/21/20153

4 4 INTRODUCTION Meat indispensable for sound human health Provides several essential nutrients:  Proteins  Amino acids  Mineral elements  Vitamins Meat subject to spoilage by:  Chemical reactions  Biochemical reactions  Biological agents, including bacteria Responsible for food-borne diseases

5 INTRODUCTION Hence meat be produced so as to:  Minimize chemical and biochemical changes  Prevent chances of bacterial contamination and growth  Preserve quality Slaughtering of lawful animals and birds essential to prepare for food purposes Pre-slaughter management and bleeding methods regulated by:  religious practices and  legislations 4/21/20155

6 6 ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two important principles:  Tasmiya - invoking name of Allah - slaughter being done with His permission  Tazkiyah - means purification This in accordance with several commands given in the Holy Quran

7 4/21/20157 ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING “Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form) ….…. (Al Maida - V:4) The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering of animals in following Hadith: “Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters”.

8 4/21/20158 ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING Process of slaughtering in Islam - consolidated Slaughterer:  must be adult Muslim or  one who believes in Holy Scriptures  should be in possession of his mental faculties Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla Recite name of Allah:  Subhan Allah, or  La illaha illila ho, or  Allah-o-Akbar or  Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar

9 4/21/20159 ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla Recite name of Allah:  Subhan Allah, or  La illaha illila ho, or  Allah-o-Akbar or  Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar Give quick incision using very sharp knife on front of the neck to severe: Wind pipe, Oesophagus, Carotid arteries, Jugular veins Prohibited - practice of cutting off part of an animal or removing its skin while still alive

10 4/21/ PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection of animals Islam permits consumption of few animals and birds only Strictly prohibited:  Pork  Blood  Carrion  Dead animals  All carnivorous animals  All birds of prey

11 4/21/ Selection of animals Permitted animals:  All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants Animal for Halal slaughter be:  Healthy  Free from any apparent or hidden impurities/disease  Must be legally owned The Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised companions to use very sharp knife Further instructed that sharpening of knife not be performed in front of slaying animal

12 4/21/ Rest prior to slaughtering Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to slaughtering:  Not fatigued  Not excited  Not nervous Prohibited - any act that causes neurosis or excitement or other abnormal behavioural changes in animal Prohibited in Islam - Practice of collective slaughtering - other animals do not view their companion being killed  Research reveals - practices inhumane

13 4/21/ Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Modern methods require animal prior to slaughtering not be subjected to:  Stress  Fatigue  Neurotic  Otherwise excited Rough handling of animals in pre-slaughter period adversely affects meat quality  Result - dark, firm and dry meat (dark cutting meat) Fatigued or starved animals  Organisms from gut may invade blood stream and eventually muscles

14 4/21/ Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Proper relaxation before slaughtering:  Helps animal to bleed well  Builds up muscle glycogen essential to lower pH of meat  Increases storage life by reducing chances of microbial growth  Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness  Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach may otherwise give meat characteristic smell known as ‘bone taint’

15 4/21/ Stress prior to slaughtering- Scientifc evidence Generally regarded undesirable that animal awaiting slaughter view slaughtering process – causes stress Animals under stress - lead to undue emotional instability and fatigue Anorexia, etc. Discharge hormones from adrenal glands:  adrenaline from adrenal medulla  17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxy-corticosterones from adrenal cortex Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium Deleterious effects on meat quality To prevent these adverse effects, tranquilizers recommended to calm stocks in transit.

16 4/21/ Feeding the animals Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals destined for slaughtering be:  well fed  provided with drinking water Preferable that animals have free access to feed and water prior to slaughtering Two schools of thoughts:  Animal to remain hungry - Fasting  Animal be well fed Fasting animals - Fasting animals before slaughter recommended in modern abattoirs

17 4/21/ Feeding the animals – Scientific evidence Fasting animals - Advantages claimed:  Bleed better  Carcass easier to dress  Carcass has brighter appearance  Reduced bulk of animal’s stomach  Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from gut Fasted animals - Disadvantages:  Loss in weight of carcass and liver  Lower glycogen reserves in muscles  Reduced gustative quality of meat

18 4/21/ Feeding the animals – Scientific evidence Well-fed animals: Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level Ensures production of adequate lactic acid Lowers pH of meat Such meat has good: Appearance, Taste, Tenderness, Longer shelf-life Meat spoilage bacteria prefer growth at high pH levels - around pH 7.0 Any decrease from normal value of about 6.8 reduces chances of bacterial multiplication, especially food poisoning ones

19 4/21/ Feeding the animals – Scientific evidence Meat of soothed and well-fed animals:  pH attains 5.5 or even lower level Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals:  pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0 To produce meat of good keeping and eating quality, often recommended to feed animals prior to slaughtering In some cases sugar solution fed to quickly restore glycogen level in tissues

20 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE - Halal Slaughtering rules apply to animals and birds in complete physical control of man - all domesticated birds and animals (except camel) Conventionally, slaughtering process consists of two to three different stages Depends on religious practices and legislations Posture of animal and bleeding method governed by religious and national legislations Western countries require animals be stunned before slaughtering Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs Main objective  make animal unconscious for gentle and painless death No standard method for all animals under all conditions Muslims and Jews not in favour of stunning

21 6. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Modern method - 1. Stunning Stunning effective in having calm animal Stunning may adversely affect quality of carcass  cause injury to medulla oblongata in brain - controls blood circulation and respiration Desirable these systems continue to function - help pump blood out of carcass when blood vessels cutMethod of shooting by free bullet - too dangerous to use in abattoirs Captive bolt - discarded Carbon dioxide anesthesia - exact dose of gas important for specific length of time 4/21/201521

22 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Modern method -1. Stunning Electrical stunning widely used  increases frequency of ‘blood splash” - appearance of small dark red areas in meat  also lowers glycogen reserves of muscle  approximately in 5 % electrically stunned animals heart failure - animal dead before incision made Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution Initially meant to protect the slaughterer and other employees Reality - no relation with mercy on animals More animals be slaughtered in least time

23 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 2. Animal positioning Islamic method - lay animal on left flank preferably facing Kibla Scientific evidence When laid on left flank, likelihood of more blood to drain owing to body pressure on heart Laying animal enables it to convulse results from contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in brain cells when incision made in neck During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels Hence more blood drains out  a pre-requisite for meat of superior eating and keeping quality

24 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 2. Animal positioning -Scientific evidence During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels Hence more blood drains out  a pre-requisite for meat of superior eating and keeping quality Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in horizontal position than those hung vertically Islam permits use of knife or any sharp object for bleeding Incision made in neck with simultaneous recitation of the name of Allah - Takbir Takbir has religious significance to believer  makes submission to Allah

25 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah “So eat of (meats) on which God’s name has been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs” (Al Anaam - Vl:118). Slaughtering not in name of any person or deity in accordance with following commands: “Eat not of meats on which God’s name has not been pronounced: that would be impiety. But the evil ones ever inspire their friends to commit end with you if ye were to obey them, ye would indeed be Pagans” (Vl:121).

26 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques - Islamic method Cut throat transversely without injuring spinal cord to severe carotid arteries, jugular veins, oesophagus and trachea Two requirements in slaughter of animals for meat:  animals be dispatched without unnecessary suffering bleeding be as complete as possible When both carotid arteries and veins severed connection between brain and body retained via spinal cord and brain sends messages to heart and lungs Heart pumps blood to parts of body  drained out from severed blood vessels in neck

27 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence Results of a comparison of study on different methods of slaughtering: Maximum blood lost in Kosher method  Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards physical details Minimum when chicken simply beheaded Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage from body before completion of death process Unconsciousness induced between 3 to 6 seconds

28 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding – Scientific evidence Blood excellent medium for growth of microorganisms Meat retaining more blood than critical level liable to bacterial spoilage Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasant appearance and discolouration in meat Keeping and eating qualities of meat depend, in part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass To produce good carcass animal be bled effectively Heart and respiratory system must function continuously as long as possible after severance of blood vessels This attained most thoroughly when heart and respiratory functions retained by maintaining medulla oblongata/spinal cord

29 4/21/ SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence Positioning of animal in Islamic method: clearly prevents retraction of carotids ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and painless death In Islamic method of slaughtering maximum blood drained - outranks other slaughtering techniques HENCE BETTER QUALITY OF MEAT

30 4/21/ ANIMAL RIGTHTS IN ISLAM Islam recognized animal rights long before human rights recognized in Western World Numerous Ahadiths on kindness and mercy towards animals Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised:  Nourish animals well  Save animals from hunger and thirst  Show kindness to animals  Do not hit or mark animal on its face  Do not shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or held up  Do not fight animals for sports or recreation  Do not unjustly kill even a sparrow or smaller bird (other than for food)

31 4/21/ EXTRODUCTION Current scientific data reveals Islamic recommendations for slaughtering animals highly rational Good physique and health considered basic requirement for selection of food animals Pre-slaughter management of animals requires they should not be fatigued, excited or neurotic Proper rest, absence of hunger and thirst and use of sharp knife alleviate pains of death

32 Thank You HALAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Head Office: 192- Ahmad Block, New Garden Town, Lahore, Pakistan Ph: , Fax: Web:


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