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CHAPTER 7 Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 B.C.E.–1100 C.E.

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1 CHAPTER 7 Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 B.C.E.–1100 C.E.

2 The Silk Road

3 Origins and Operations The Silk Road was an overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world West The Silk Road was an overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world West The two periods of heavy use of the Silk Road: The two periods of heavy use of the Silk Road: (1) 150 B.C.E.–907 C.E.(1) 150 B.C.E.–907 C.E. (2) The thirteenth through seventeenth centuries C.E.(2) The thirteenth through seventeenth centuries C.E.

4 Origins and Operations The origins of the Silk Road in the occasional trading of Central Asian nomads The origins of the Silk Road in the occasional trading of Central Asian nomads the Chinese demand for western products (particularly horses). the Chinese demand for western products (particularly horses). Trade was also increased by the Parthian state. Trade was also increased by the Parthian state.

5 Origins and Operations New Crops New Crops In addition to horses, China imported alfalfa, grapes, and a variety of other new crops as well as medicinal products, metals, and precious stonesIn addition to horses, China imported alfalfa, grapes, and a variety of other new crops as well as medicinal products, metals, and precious stones China exported peaches and apricots, spices, and manufactured goods including silk, pottery, and paperChina exported peaches and apricots, spices, and manufactured goods including silk, pottery, and paper

6 Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia Sythians Sythians The Silk Road depended on pastoral nomads to provide animals, animal handlers, and protection.The Silk Road depended on pastoral nomads to provide animals, animal handlers, and protection. Herodotus describes the Scythians who were superb riders, herdsmen, and hunters.Herodotus describes the Scythians who were superb riders, herdsmen, and hunters. They were located in the lands to the north of the Black and Caspian Seas.They were located in the lands to the north of the Black and Caspian Seas. They moved around regularly and efficiently to prevent overgrazing.They moved around regularly and efficiently to prevent overgrazing. Their homes were felt fabric spread over a lightweight framework.Their homes were felt fabric spread over a lightweight framework.

7 Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia The Nomadic Lifestyle The Nomadic Lifestyle Nomads knew and used the products grown by farmers, but ideally desired self-sufficiency.Nomads knew and used the products grown by farmers, but ideally desired self-sufficiency. As a result the foods required for this self- sufficiency were primarily milk and meat.As a result the foods required for this self- sufficiency were primarily milk and meat. Clothing was made from felt, leather, and furs.Clothing was made from felt, leather, and furs. Nomads were dependent on settled regions for bronze or iron used in bridles, stirrups, cart fittings, and weapons.Nomads were dependent on settled regions for bronze or iron used in bridles, stirrups, cart fittings, and weapons.

8 The Silk Road and the Spread of Religion The Sasanid Empire The Sasanid Empire Sasanids defeated the Parthians around 224 C.E.Sasanids defeated the Parthians around 224 C.E. The Sasanids then confronted the Romans, and later after 330, the Byzantines.The Sasanids then confronted the Romans, and later after 330, the Byzantines. These rival empires frequently attacked each other across the frontier between the 340s and 628.These rival empires frequently attacked each other across the frontier between the 340s and 628. In peacetime, exchange and trade flourished between the two empires.In peacetime, exchange and trade flourished between the two empires.

9 The Silk Road and the Spread of Religion Arab pastoralists in the desert between Syria and Mesopotamia provided the camels and guides to extend the Silk Road from the Euphrates River all the way to the Mediterranean coast.Arab pastoralists in the desert between Syria and Mesopotamia provided the camels and guides to extend the Silk Road from the Euphrates River all the way to the Mediterranean coast. The development of the militarily efficient camel saddle by the third century B.C.E. caused the virtual disappearance of wheeled vehicles by the sixth century C.E.The development of the militarily efficient camel saddle by the third century B.C.E. caused the virtual disappearance of wheeled vehicles by the sixth century C.E.

10 The Silk Road and the Spread of Religion Warrior Nobles Warrior Nobles Cousins of the Shah, or powerful nobles ruled the mountains and plateaus of Iran.Cousins of the Shah, or powerful nobles ruled the mountains and plateaus of Iran. Society revolved around a local aristocracy that lived in rural estates.Society revolved around a local aristocracy that lived in rural estates. Though this aristocracy dominated, a long- lasting political fragmentation like that of medieval Europe did not develop.Though this aristocracy dominated, a long- lasting political fragmentation like that of medieval Europe did not develop. No folk migration occurred like that of the Germanic tribes who defeated Roman armies to overtake Roman territoryNo folk migration occurred like that of the Germanic tribes who defeated Roman armies to overtake Roman territory

11 The Silk Road and the Spread of Religion Zoroastrians and Christians Zoroastrians and Christians

12 Nestorius’ view was that Jesus was made up of two persons with two distinct natures instead of one person with two mystically unified natures. Jesus technically was not the “Son of God” or “Logos,” rather, the Son of God dwelled in Jesus. Nestorian Christianity

13 Nestorius calls Mary christotokos (Christ-bearer or mother of Christ) instead of theotokos (God- bearer or mother of God) the term used in Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism. Nestorius calls Mary christotokos (Christ-bearer or mother of Christ) instead of theotokos (God- bearer or mother of God) the term used in Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism. The Orthodox bishops saw this as denying the full divinity of Jesus, and declared Nestorius a heretic. The Orthodox bishops saw this as denying the full divinity of Jesus, and declared Nestorius a heretic. Yet Nestorian Christianity spread across the silk road to the east. Yet Nestorian Christianity spread across the silk road to the east. The political fallout was that Nestorian Christians moved toward the east and were welcomed by the Sasanid emperors. They were happy to declare allegiance to the east rather than to Constantinople. The political fallout was that Nestorian Christians moved toward the east and were welcomed by the Sasanid emperors. They were happy to declare allegiance to the east rather than to Constantinople.

14 The Silk Road and the Spread of Religion Manicheaism Manicheaism a blending of Gnostic Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism

15 The Impact of the Silk Road on Technology Turkic nomads, who became the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia, benefited from the trade Turkic nomads, who became the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia, benefited from the trade Their elites constructed houses, lived settled lives, and became interested in foreign religions including Christianity, Buddhism, and (eventually) Islam Their elites constructed houses, lived settled lives, and became interested in foreign religions including Christianity, Buddhism, and (eventually) Islam

16 The Indian Ocean Maritime System The Indian Ocean maritime system linked the lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea The Indian Ocean maritime system linked the lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea Trade took place in three distinct regions: Trade took place in three distinct regions: (1) the South China Sea, dominated by Chinese and Malays (1) the South China Sea, dominated by Chinese and Malays (2) Southeast Asia to the east coast of India, dominated by Malays and Indians (2) Southeast Asia to the east coast of India, dominated by Malays and Indians (3) The west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa, dominated by Persians and Arabs (3) The west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa, dominated by Persians and Arabs

17 Trade in the Indian Ocean was made possible by and followed the patterns of the seasonal changes in the monsoon winds Trade in the Indian Ocean was made possible by and followed the patterns of the seasonal changes in the monsoon winds Sailing technology unique to the Indian Ocean system included the lateen sail and a shipbuilding technique that involved piercing the planks, tying them together, and caulking them. Sailing technology unique to the Indian Ocean system included the lateen sail and a shipbuilding technique that involved piercing the planks, tying them together, and caulking them.

18 Climate Regions of South Asia

19 Origins of Contact and Trade There is evidence of early trade between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley There is evidence of early trade between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley This trade appears to have broken off as Mesopotamia turned more toward trade with East Africa. This trade appears to have broken off as Mesopotamia turned more toward trade with East Africa. Two thousand years ago, Malay sailors from Southeast Asia migrated to the islands of Madagascar Two thousand years ago, Malay sailors from Southeast Asia migrated to the islands of Madagascar

20 The Impact of Indian Ocean Trade What little we know about trade in the Indian Ocean system before Islam is gleaned largely from a single first century C.E. Greco-Egyptian text, The Periplus (list of stops during a sea route or voyage) of the Erythrean Sea What little we know about trade in the Indian Ocean system before Islam is gleaned largely from a single first century C.E. Greco-Egyptian text, The Periplus (list of stops during a sea route or voyage) of the Erythrean Sea This account describes a trading system that must have been well established and flourishing when the account was written This account describes a trading system that must have been well established and flourishing when the account was written

21 Periplus of the Eryhtrean Sea

22 The goods traded included a wide variety of spices, aromatic resins, pearls, Chinese pottery, and other luxury goods. The goods traded included a wide variety of spices, aromatic resins, pearls, Chinese pottery, and other luxury goods. The volume of trade was probably not as high as in the Mediterranean The volume of trade was probably not as high as in the Mediterranean The culture of the Indian Ocean ports was often isolated from that of their hinterlands The culture of the Indian Ocean ports was often isolated from that of their hinterlands Traders and sailors in the Indian Ocean system often married local women in the ports that they frequented. These women thus became mediators between cultures Traders and sailors in the Indian Ocean system often married local women in the ports that they frequented. These women thus became mediators between cultures

23 Routes Across the Sahara Early Saharan Cultures Undatable rock painting show an early hunting culture, that would eventually become cattle breeders Undatable rock painting show an early hunting culture, that would eventually become cattle breeders The artwork indicates that the cattle breeders were later succeeded by horse herders who drove chariots The artwork indicates that the cattle breeders were later succeeded by horse herders who drove chariots The highland rock art indicates that camel riders followed the charioteers The highland rock art indicates that camel riders followed the charioteers

24 Saharan rock art: Cattle herders This rock painting was found in Tassili, a mountainous region in the Sahara. This scene of cattle grazing near the group of huts (represented on the left by stylized white ovals) reflects the domestication of animals and the development of settled pastoral agriculture. Women and children seem to perform most of the domestic chores. (Henri Lhote) Saharan rock art: Cattle herders Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 The Camel The camel was introduced from Arabia and its introduction and domestication in the Sahara was probably related to the development of the trans-Saharan trade The camel was introduced from Arabia and its introduction and domestication in the Sahara was probably related to the development of the trans-Saharan trade Written evidence and the design of camel saddles and patterns of camel use indicate a south-to-north diffusion of camel riding. Written evidence and the design of camel saddles and patterns of camel use indicate a south-to-north diffusion of camel riding. The camel made it possible for people from the southern highlands of the Sahara to roam the desert and to establish contacts with the people of the northern Sahara The camel made it possible for people from the southern highlands of the Sahara to roam the desert and to establish contacts with the people of the northern Sahara

26 Traders in the north exported agricultural products and wild animals to Italy. Traders in the north exported agricultural products and wild animals to Italy. When Rome declined (3rd century C.E.) and the Arabs invaded North Africa (mid-7th century C.E.) When Rome declined (3rd century C.E.) and the Arabs invaded North Africa (mid-7th century C.E.) The trade of Algeria and Morocco was cut off The trade of Algeria and Morocco was cut off The Berber people of these areas revolted against the Arabs in the 700s and established independent city-states including Sijilmasa and Tahert. The Berber people of these areas revolted against the Arabs in the 700s and established independent city-states including Sijilmasa and Tahert.

27 Distribution of Berbers in Northwest Africa

28 After 740 C.E. the Berbers found that the southern nomads were getting gold dust from the Niger and other areas of West Africa in exchange for their salt After 740 C.E. the Berbers found that the southern nomads were getting gold dust from the Niger and other areas of West Africa in exchange for their salt This opened their eyes to a great business opportunity This opened their eyes to a great business opportunity A pattern of trade developed in which the Berbers of North Africa traded copper and manufactured goods to the nomads of the southern desert in return for gold A pattern of trade developed in which the Berbers of North Africa traded copper and manufactured goods to the nomads of the southern desert in return for gold

29 The Kingdom of Ghana The kingdom of Ghana was one of the early sub-Saharan beneficiaries of this new trans-Saharan trade in north west Africa The kingdom of Ghana was one of the early sub-Saharan beneficiaries of this new trans-Saharan trade in north west Africa The origins and early history of Ghana are obscure The origins and early history of Ghana are obscure The first description we have is the eleventh century account by al-Bakri, who described a city of two towns, one a Muslim merchant town and the other the capital of an animist king and his court. The first description we have is the eleventh century account by al-Bakri, who described a city of two towns, one a Muslim merchant town and the other the capital of an animist king and his court.

30 Almorovids at greatest extent After 1076 Ghana was weakened by the invasion of the Moroccan Almorovids After 1076 Ghana was weakened by the invasion of the Moroccan Almorovids Even after the Almorovids retreated from the south, Ghana never recovered its former wealth and status. Even after the Almorovids retreated from the south, Ghana never recovered its former wealth and status.

31 Sub-Saharan Africa A Challenging Geography Sub-Saharan Africa is a large area with many different environmental zones and many geographical obstacles to movement Sub-Saharan Africa is a large area with many different environmental zones and many geographical obstacles to movement

32 Some of the significant geographical areas are : Sahel Sahel tropical savanna tropical savanna tropical rain forest of the lower Niger and Zaire tropical rain forest of the lower Niger and Zaire savanna area south of the rain forest savanna area south of the rain forest steppe and desert below that steppe and desert below that temperate highlands of South Africa temperate highlands of South Africa

33 The Development of Cultural Unity In sub-Saharan Africa no overarching “great tradition” developed In sub-Saharan Africa no overarching “great tradition” developed Sub-Saharan Africa is a vast territory of many “small traditions.” Sub-Saharan Africa is a vast territory of many “small traditions.” Historians know very little about the prehistory of these many “small traditions” and their peoples Historians know very little about the prehistory of these many “small traditions” and their peoples

34 African cultures are highly diverse African cultures are highly diverse There is an estimated 2000 languages spoken There is an estimated 2000 languages spoken Another reason for the long dominance of “small traditions” is that no foreign power was able to conquer Africa and thus impose a unified “great tradition.” Another reason for the long dominance of “small traditions” is that no foreign power was able to conquer Africa and thus impose a unified “great tradition.”

35 African Cultural Characteristics Despite their diversity, African cultures display certain common features that attest to an underlying cultural unity that some scholars have called “Africanity.” Despite their diversity, African cultures display certain common features that attest to an underlying cultural unity that some scholars have called “Africanity.” One of these common cultural features is a concept of kingship in which kings are ritually isolated and oversee societies in which the people are arranged in age groups and kinship divisions. One of these common cultural features is a concept of kingship in which kings are ritually isolated and oversee societies in which the people are arranged in age groups and kinship divisions.

36 The Advent of Iron and the Bantu Migrations Sub-Saharan agriculture had its origins north of the equator and then spread southward. Iron working also began north of the equator and spread southward, reaching southern Africa by 800 C.E. Sub-Saharan agriculture had its origins north of the equator and then spread southward. Iron working also began north of the equator and spread southward, reaching southern Africa by 800 C.E. Linguistic evidence suggests that the spread of iron and other technology in sub-Saharan Africa was the result of a phenomenon known as the Bantu migrations. Linguistic evidence suggests that the spread of iron and other technology in sub-Saharan Africa was the result of a phenomenon known as the Bantu migrations.

37 Bantu Migration s

38 The original homeland of the Bantu people was in the area on the border of modern Nigeria and Cameroon. The original homeland of the Bantu people was in the area on the border of modern Nigeria and Cameroon. Evidence suggests that the Bantu people spread out toward the east and the south through a series of migrations over the period of the first millennium C.E. By the eight century, Bantu-speaking people had reached East Africa. Evidence suggests that the Bantu people spread out toward the east and the south through a series of migrations over the period of the first millennium C.E. By the eight century, Bantu-speaking people had reached East Africa.

39 The Spread of Ideas

40 Ideas and Material Evidence It is extremely difficult, sometimes impossible, to trace the dissemination of ideas in preliterate societies It is extremely difficult, sometimes impossible, to trace the dissemination of ideas in preliterate societies For example, eating pork was restricted or prohibited by religious belief in Southeast Asia, in ancient Egypt, and in eastern Iran For example, eating pork was restricted or prohibited by religious belief in Southeast Asia, in ancient Egypt, and in eastern Iran Because Southeast Asia was an early center of pig domestication, scholars hypothesize that the pig and the religious injunctions concerning eating the pig traveled together toward the west. This has not been proved. Because Southeast Asia was an early center of pig domestication, scholars hypothesize that the pig and the religious injunctions concerning eating the pig traveled together toward the west. This has not been proved.

41 Another difficult problem involves the invention of coins. Another difficult problem involves the invention of coins. In the Mediterranean world, the coins were invented in Anatolia and spread from there to Europe, North Africa, and India. In the Mediterranean world, the coins were invented in Anatolia and spread from there to Europe, North Africa, and India. Chinese made cast copper coins— was this inspired by the Anatolian example? There is no way of knowing. Chinese made cast copper coins— was this inspired by the Anatolian example? There is no way of knowing.

42 The Spread of Buddhism The spread of ideas in a deliberate and organized fashion such that we can trace it is a phenomenon of the first millennium C.E. The spread of ideas in a deliberate and organized fashion such that we can trace it is a phenomenon of the first millennium C.E. This is particularly the case with the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. This is particularly the case with the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.

43 The spread of Buddhism was facilitated both by royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary pilgrims and missionaries. The spread of Buddhism was facilitated both by royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary pilgrims and missionaries. In India, the Mauryan king Ashoka and King Kanishka of the Kushans actively supported Buddhism. In India, the Mauryan king Ashoka and King Kanishka of the Kushans actively supported Buddhism. Two of the most well-known pilgrims who helped to transmit Buddhism to China were the Chinese monks Faxian and Xuanzang. Two of the most well-known pilgrims who helped to transmit Buddhism to China were the Chinese monks Faxian and Xuanzang. Both have left reliable narrative accounts of their journeys. Both have left reliable narrative accounts of their journeys.

44 Buddhist missionaries from India traveled to a variety of destinations: west to Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, as well as to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Tibet. Buddhist missionaries from India traveled to a variety of destinations: west to Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, as well as to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Tibet. Buddhism was changed and further developed in the lands to which it spread. Theravada Buddhism became dominant in Sri Lanka, Mahayana in Tibet, and Chan (Zen) in East Asia. Buddhism was changed and further developed in the lands to which it spread. Theravada Buddhism became dominant in Sri Lanka, Mahayana in Tibet, and Chan (Zen) in East Asia.

45 The Spread of Christianity Armenia was an important entrepot. An entrepôt (from the French "warehouse") is a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. for the Silk Road trade. Armenia was an important entrepot. An entrepôt (from the French "warehouse") is a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. for the Silk Road trade. Frenchwarehouse trading post importedexported dutiesprofit Frenchwarehouse trading post importedexported dutiesprofit Mediterranean states spread Christianity to Armenia in order to bring that kingdom over to its side and thus deprive Iran of control of this area. Mediterranean states spread Christianity to Armenia in order to bring that kingdom over to its side and thus deprive Iran of control of this area.

46 The transmission of Christianity to Ethiopia was similarly linked to a Mediterranean Christian attempt to deprive Iran of trade. The transmission of Christianity to Ethiopia was similarly linked to a Mediterranean Christian attempt to deprive Iran of trade.


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