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Subsistence Strategies: Pastoralism. 2 A Story of Sididi Ag Inaka  Pastoral Nomad, Mali.

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Presentation on theme: "Subsistence Strategies: Pastoralism. 2 A Story of Sididi Ag Inaka  Pastoral Nomad, Mali."— Presentation transcript:

1 Subsistence Strategies: Pastoralism

2 2 A Story of Sididi Ag Inaka  Pastoral Nomad, Mali

3 3 Animal Husbandry  10,000 years ago  Diversity: camels, reindeer, cattle, sheep, goats, llama, alpaca, yaks

4 4 Traditional pastoralist regions during the late 19th and early 20th centuriesTraditional pastoralist regions during the late 19th and early 20th centuries Traditional pastoralist regions during the late 19th and early 20th centuriesTraditional pastoralist regions during the late 19th and early 20th centuries llama, alpaca reindeer camel cattle sheep, goat, cattle, horse yak

5 5 Unlike Horticulturalists…  Mostly nomadic  Occupy grasslands  Commitment to animals Usually don’t plant crops (may look down on cultivators) Maasai  Often hierarchical sociopolitical organization

6 6 Political Organization  Tribes or Chiefdoms  Tribes: Formal Institutions to unify dispersed groups Lineages, Clans (kinship) Sodalities (non-kin)  Provides united front  Rights to grazing lands, herds

7 7 Nuer

8 8 Nomadic or Sedentary  Nuer (Sudan) – Horizontal migration (wet/dry seasons)  Importance of cattle Payment to settle feuds (Dinka) Bride price Inheritance via clan membership

9 9 Individuals & Cattle Names

10 10 Nuer History  Nuer were one of few groups who fended off colonialism  Evans-Pritchard British bombing of Nuer camps Hanging of Nuer profits

11 11 Basser i

12 12  Basseri (Iran) – Vertical migration Transhumance  Summer—highlands,  Winter—lower elevations Do not raise crops Chiefdom Tents

13 13 Functional Consequences  Fluid Groups Fusion in wet, Fission in dry Also depends on resources, social conflict  Rarely kill animals

14 14  Not self-sufficient Symbiotic relationship to settled communities  Peaceful trade  Purchase land, hire tenants  Tribute  Raiding

15 15  Division of labor based on sex & age  Little specialization  Often social stratification  Territoriality  Often hierarchical political organization May be authority to settle disputes, lead raids, coordinate migrations

16 16  Fueding & warfare common  Ancestor veneration Rights to grazing lands & herds determined by descent

17 17 Compared to Cultivation  Pastoralism is less efficient  Desert, Grasslands, Savanna, Mountains  Animals transform plants into meat, blood, milk, cheese  Risk reduction vs. drought

18 18 10% Rule  Food energy & the food chain  Plants are at the base  Herbivores convert 10% plant energy into flesh & blood  Carnivores convert 10%  At each level energy is lost

19 19 Maasa i

20 20 Maasai  Cattle herders, Kenya, Tanzania Cattle bring prestige  Feared warriors Internal conflict, drought, disease  Resistance to sedentarization

21 21  Semi-permanent settlements

22 22  Maasai do not cultivate Sacrilege to break the earth Large portion of diet is cow’s milk & blood  Meat eating is restricted to ceremonial occasions

23 23  Maasai warriors raid, steal cattle & women  “Moran” = Warriors live as age grades  Hallucinogens to prepare for raids

24 24 Male Age Sets Childhood Boyhood Warrior Elder  Initiation of Age Sets  Gender differences

25 25 Maasai Beliefs  All cattle put on earth by Ngai, all belong to the Maasai  Raiding is thus return of cattle to rightful owners  Change: Resistance to colonization, tests of manhood forbidden, restrictions to grazing lands, settlement

26 26 Taureg

27 27 Taureg  Mali, Niger  The tent camp Few possessions Sharing Mobility

28 28  Taureg nomads & drought  Forces for change Past wealth, camel caravans Uranium & Tourism Taureg Rebellion U.S. Role

29 29 Wodaab e

30 30 Wodaabe  Nigeria, Niger  History & religious wars  Trade routes

31 31  Women & weaving  Men & political office

32 32 Bakhtiar i

33 33 Bakhtiari (Iran) Pastoral Nomads & Governments Concern with National Unity Pahlavi Dynasty:  Reza Shah Pahlavi ( )  Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi ( )

34 34  Bakhtiari Don’t pay taxes Allegiance is to chief Don’t recognize national boundaries

35 35  : Shah’s Policy Pacification & sendentarization Killed tribal chiefs,  19 th C. British opened oil fields in winter pasturelands  1941 U.S., Britain, USSR invade

36 36  Mohammed Reza Pahlavi Nationalized oil Converted pastures to agriculture Bakhtiari become tenant farmers, sharecroppers, wage laborers  Sedentarization is not complete Loss of herds when don’t migrate

37 37 Bedouin Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Syria

38 38 Bedouin  Traditionally nomadic pastoralists  Territorial defense & hospitality

39 39 Gender Differences  Separation of tent Retained in settled houses

40 40 Social Change  Settled communities  Acquisition of material goods  But cultural identity is in tact Genealogy, Tribal organization, Kinship relations, Code of morality

41 41 Role of Women in Muslim Society  Inequality & dependence  Loyalty to tribe  Polygyny  Purdah (seclusion) & Veiling Social status Resistance

42 42  Women as danger when not subjected to male authority  Honor & Shame  Importance of chastity where inheritance is through the male blood line  Modesty, deference

43 43 Importance of Blood Relations  "I against my brothers,  I and my brothers against my cousins,  I and my brothers and my cousins against the world"

44 44 BEDOUINS & THE WAR IN IRAQ US Army 2nd Battalion, 70th Armor passing Bedouin family in the desert March 23, 2003

45 45 A US Army tank speeds past a Bedouin’s camel in the southern Iraqi desert

46 46 US soldier attached to the 101st Airborne Aviation Brigade throws crackers to two Bedouins

47 47 Bedouin Campsite

48 48 Pastoralists: The Original Capitalists

49 49 “Natural Capital”  Entrepreneurial activities  Reliance on increasing herd size  Importance of wool to early capitalism  Textile industries relied on animal products in the early phase of industrialization

50 50  Pastoralists contributed to growth of the world economy  Yet their lives are in crisis today


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