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And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee.

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Presentation on theme: "And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee."— Presentation transcript:

1 And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live. Christian holy scriptures (Bible, King James Version): Deuteronomy 8: 2-3

2 A FIFTH Subsistence Strategies Industrialization Industrialization

3 Subsistence Strategies Foraging (Gathering / Hunting) Pastoralism Horticulture Agriculture

4 Foraging / Gathering-Hunting  Basic mode of exploiting environment for 99% human history - found everywhere  Recent times: relegated to marginal areas  Nomadic / semi-nomadic / transhumance  Wild plant & animal resources  Intimate knowledge life-cycles of plants/animals  Diet  Nutritionally superior to traditional agriculturalist & modern industrial societies

5 Foraging / Gathering-Hunting Socio-cultural characteristics  Division of labor by sex & age  Arose within last 50, ,000 years  Usually limited material stuff  Land / resources available to all group members  Exceptions (Calif., Pacific NW): resource areas exploited by members of particular kinship group

6 Foraging / Gathering-Hunting Socio-cultural characteristics  Small group size  Flexible group composition  Bilaterial descent and kinship structure  Sharing ethos  Egalitarian

7 Foraging / Gathering-Hunting Recent (last 150 years) Representatives San (Ju/'hoansi): Botswana; S. Africa San (Ju/'hoansi): Botswana; S. Africa San Innu: Canada (also Siberia, Alaska, Greenland) Innu: Canada (also Siberia, Alaska, Greenland) Innu Paiute: Great Basin of N. America Paiute: Great Basin of N. America Pygmies (e.g., Baka; Mbuti): Central Africa Pygmies (e.g., Baka; Mbuti): Central Africa Pygmies Jarawa and Sentinelese: Andaman Islands Jarawa and Sentinelese: Andaman Islands JarawaSentinelese JarawaSentinelese Pila Nguru (The Spinifex People): Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia Pila Nguru (The Spinifex People): Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia Pila Nguru Pila Nguru

8 Baka

9 Pastoralism The care, tending, and use of domesticated animals (camels, llamas, cattle, reindeer, sheep, goats, yaks, etc.). Modern pastoralists found in every part of the world. Nuer cattle herders, Sudan Tuareg camel herders, Chad Sami reindeer herders, Norway Yoruk sheep herders, Turkey

10 Pastoralism - Basic Features Reliance upon domesticated animal herds Reliance upon domesticated animal herds Main forms: cattle, sheep, goats (a few systems: camels, reindeer) Main forms: cattle, sheep, goats (a few systems: camels, reindeer) Sometime herd more than one species Sometime herd more than one species Diet Diet Heavily dependent on milk, animals seldom eaten Heavily dependent on milk, animals seldom eaten Natural pastures (no cultivation of fodder) Natural pastures (no cultivation of fodder) Nomadic as well as Transhumance systems Nomadic as well as Transhumance systems Herds moved from pasture to pasture as they exhaust grasses or seasons change Herds moved from pasture to pasture as they exhaust grasses or seasons change Animal resources sometimes supplemented by agriculture Animal resources sometimes supplemented by agriculture Complementary farming or trade with farming communities Complementary farming or trade with farming communities

11 Pastoralism: Sociocultural Traits Pastoralism: Sociocultural Traits Population size: a few thousand to tens of thousands Population size: a few thousand to tens of thousands Small herd-management units (extended patrilocal households) Small herd-management units (extended patrilocal households) Stock used for bride wealth payments / other social exchanges Stock used for bride wealth payments / other social exchanges Parallel cousin marriage Parallel cousin marriage Wealth differences based on differential stock ownership Wealth differences based on differential stock ownership Decentralized political organization Decentralized political organization Complex relationships with settled agricultural communities Complex relationships with settled agricultural communities Trade/other exchange; sometimes political subjugation (e.g. modern States) Trade/other exchange; sometimes political subjugation (e.g. modern States)

12 Mongolian Pastoralists

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14 The Basseri: Iranian Pastoralists

15 Territory & Location Inhabit province of Fars Migrate along steppes and mountains near the town of Shiraz (transhumance) Clearly delineated group - defined by political rather than ethnic or geographical criteria. Late 1950s: 16,000±

16 Basseri Subsistence Sheep & goats: food, hides, wool Sheep & goats: food, hides, wool Every family has a herd of about 100 animals Every family has a herd of about 100 animals Donkeys: pack animals; women, children sometime ride Donkeys: pack animals; women, children sometime ride Horses: ridden by men, sometime by women Horses: ridden by men, sometime by women Camels: beasts of burden Camels: beasts of burden

17 Wealth Is In One’s Herd Wealth shown by amount of animals in one’s herd As herd grows, so does one’s wealth

18 Horticulture (Extensive Cultivation) Farmers not make heavy labor commitments or expenditures to create capital items (e.g irrigation) Farmers not make heavy labor commitments or expenditures to create capital items (e.g irrigation) Cultivation strategies designed to maximize use of unmodified natural resources Cultivation strategies designed to maximize use of unmodified natural resources Basic plot patterns designed to replicate rather than restructure natural environment; involve techniques of intercropping of complementary plants Basic plot patterns designed to replicate rather than restructure natural environment; involve techniques of intercropping of complementary plants After short periods of cultivation: lengthy fallow periods imposed to re-establish soil fertility After short periods of cultivation: lengthy fallow periods imposed to re-establish soil fertility Yields per acre: relatively low Yields per acre: relatively low

19 Horticulture: Socio-cultural Traits Moderate population densitie (100 to 300/sq. mile) Moderate population densitie (100 to 300/sq. mile) Sedentary: settle in (semi-) permanent villages) Sedentary: settle in (semi-) permanent villages) Localized unilineal descent groups that allocate land use and assume other corporate functions Localized unilineal descent groups that allocate land use and assume other corporate functions Intergroup integration through the development of pan-tribal sodalities, such as age grades Intergroup integration through the development of pan-tribal sodalities, such as age grades Absence of Absence of Occupational specialization Occupational specialization Wealth stratification Wealth stratification Political centralization Political centralization

20 Cameroon Highlands Phase I Phase I Forest cleared, planted w/mix maize, cocoyam, raffia palm, coffee Forest cleared, planted w/mix maize, cocoyam, raffia palm, coffee Some tree cover retained: protect crops & allow for forest regeneration Some tree cover retained: protect crops & allow for forest regeneration Phase II Phase II After 3 years: annual food crops of maize & cocoyam have been harvested off After 3 years: annual food crops of maize & cocoyam have been harvested off Tree crops (plantain, raffia palm, coffee) remain, replacing traditional fallow regime of natural woodland succession Tree crops (plantain, raffia palm, coffee) remain, replacing traditional fallow regime of natural woodland succession Unmodified Rainforest Phase II Phase I

21 Agriculture (Intensive Cultivation) Pre-Industrial Labor intensive Labor intensive Concentrate human labor input on a given acre of farmland Concentrate human labor input on a given acre of farmland Wide variety of systems recorded Wide variety of systems recorded Most depend on irrigation, animal-drawn plowing, or both Most depend on irrigation, animal-drawn plowing, or both Main features Main features Modification of natural environment to increase land productivity Modification of natural environment to increase land productivity Creation of capital works and capital goods Creation of capital works and capital goods Use of fertilizers Use of fertilizers Monoculture Monoculture Permanent cultivation of farm plots Permanent cultivation of farm plots High yields per acre High yields per acre


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